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20/06/2015

Coniotomie sur le terrain: La vraie vie

An analysis of battlefield cricothyrotomy in Iraq and Afghanistan

J Spec Oper Med. 2012 Spring;12(1):17-23

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Pouvoir oxygéner est fondamental. Mais il existe de très nombreuses situations où l'oxygénation par masque ou ballon n'est pas possible ou insuffisante. Il faut alors contrôler les voies aériennes, en particulier la la réalisation d'une coniotomie (1). Ce travail est un des rares actuellement publiés qui fasse le point sur la réalisation de ce geste en conditions de combat (2,3,). Il met en avant la réalité de sa réalisation y compris par les medic, qui ont cependant un taux d'échec double de celui des médecins. Il suggère également tout l'intérêt des ateliers de formation et de séjours au bloc opératoire pour améliorer cet état de fait.

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OBJECTIVES:

Historical review of modern military conflicts suggests that airway compromise accounts for 1,2% of total combat fatalities. This study examines the specific intervention of pre-hospital cricothyrotomy (PC) in the military setting using the largest studies of civilian medics performing PC as historical controls. The goal of this paper is to help define optimal airway management strategies, tools and techniques for use in the military pre-hospital setting.

METHODS:

This retrospective chart review examined all patients presenting to combat support hospitals following prehospital cricothyrotomy during combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan during a 22-month period. A PC was determined successful if it was documented as functional on arrival to the hospital. All PC complications that were documented in the patient's record were also noted in the review.

RESULTS:

Two thirds of the patients died. The most common injuries were caused by explosions, followed by gunshot wounds (GSW) and blunt trauma. Eighty-two percent of the casualties had injures to face, neck or head. Those injured by gunshot wounds to the head or thorax all died. The largest group of survivors had gunshot wounds to the face and/or neck (38%) followed by explosion related injury to the face, neck and head (33%). Pre-hospital cricothyrotomy was documented as successful in 68% of the cases while 26% of the PCs failed to cannulate the trachea. In 6% of cases the patient was pronounced dead on arrival without documentation of PC function. The majority of PCs (62%) were performed by combat medics at the point of injury. Physicians and physician assistants (PA) were more successful performing PC than medics with a 15% versus a 33% failure rate. Complications were not significantly different than those found in civilian PC studies, including incorrect anatomic placement, excessive bleeding, air leak and right main stem placement.

CONCLUSIONS:

The majority of patients who underwent PC died (66%). The largest group of survivors had gunshot wounds to the face and/or neck (38%) followed by explosion related injury to the face, neck and head (33%). Military medics have a 33% failure rate when performing this procedure compared to 15% for physicians and physician assistants. Minor complications occurred in 21% of cases. The survival rate and complication rates are similar to previous civilian studies of medics performing PC. However the failure rate for military medics is three to five times higher than comparable civilian studies. Further study is required to define the optimal equipment, technique, and training required for combat medics to master this infrequently performed but lifesaving procedure.

07/05/2015

CICO: Stratégies et équipement

Equipment and strategies for emergency tracheal access in the adult patient

Hamaekers A; et All. Anaesthesia, 2011, 66 (Suppl. 2), pages 65–80

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Un document qui passe en revue les équipements à mettre en oeuvre lors de sutuation de CICO (Can't intubate can't oxygneate)

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The inability to maintain oxygenation by non-invasive means is one of the most pressing emergencies in anaesthesia and emergency care. To prevent hypoxic brain damage and death in a ‘cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate’ situation, emergency percutaneous airway access must be performed immediately. Even though this emergency is rare, every anaesthetist should be capable of performing an emergency percutaneous airway as the situation may arise unexpectedly. Clear knowledge of the anatomy and the insertion technique, and repeated skill training are essential to ensure completion of this procedure rapidly and successfully. Various techniques have been described for emergency oxygenation and several commercial emergency cricothyroidotomy sets are available. There is, however, no consensus on the best technique or device. As each has its limitations, it is recommended that all anaesthetists are skilled in more than one technique of emergency percutaneous airway. Avoiding delay in initiating rescue techniques is at least as important as choice of device in determining outcome

04/04/2015

Simulateur de tâche: Modifié pour + de réalisme!

Rescuing the obese or burned airway: are conventional training manikins adequate? A simulation study

 Howes TE. et Al. Br J Anaesth. 2015 Jan;114(1):136-42

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L'emploi de simulateurs de taches se heurte au problème du réalisme de ces derniers. Cette équipe propose de modifier les simulateurs industriels pour plus de réalité.

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Background. Percutaneous tracheal access is required in more than 40% of major airway emergencies, and rates of failure are high among anaesthetists. Supraglottic airway management is more likely to fail in patients with obesity or neck pathology. Commercially available manikins may aid training. In this study, we modified a standard ‘front of neck’ manikin and evaluated anaesthetists’ performance of percutaneous tracheal access.

Methods. Two cricothyroidotomy training manikins were modified using sections of belly pork to simulate a morbidly obese patient and an obese patient with neck burns.

 

F2.medium.gif

 

An unmodified manikin was used to simulate a slim patient. Twenty consultant anaesthetists were asked to manage a ‘can’t intubate, can’t ventilate’ scenario involving each of the three manikins. Outcome measures were success using their chosen technique and time to first effective breath.

Results. Success rates using first-choice equipment were: ‘slim’ manikin 100%, ‘morbidly obese’ manikin 60%, and ‘burned obese’ manikin 77%. All attempts on the ‘slim’ manikin succeeded within 240 s, the majority within 120 s. In attempts on the ‘morbidly obese’ manikin, 60% succeeded within 240 s and 20% required more than 720 s. All attempts on the ‘burned obese’ manikin succeeded within 180 s.

Conclusions. Significantly greater technical difficulty was experienced with our ‘morbidly obese’ manikin compared with the unmodified manikin. Failure rates and times to completion were considerably more consistent with real-life reports. Modifying a standard manikin to simulate an obese patient is likely to better prepare anaesthetists for this challenging situation. Development of a commercial manikin with such properties would be of value

| Tags : coniotomie

Crico: S'entraîner sur un modèle animal est pertinent ?

 Comparison of manikin versus porcine models in cricothyrotomy procedure training

Cho J et Coll. Emerg Med J 2008;25:732-734

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Le choix du simulateur de tache utilisé  pour l'enseignement de la coniotomie reste une vrai question. Modèle humain, animal ou artificiel. Cet article met en avant l'intérêt du modèle animal qui offrirait plus de réalité anatomique. Néanmoins il faut lire ce document avec un peu de recul car la coniotomie est un geste peu fréquemment réalisé, et probablement que la notion de réalisme porte plutôt sur les aspects anatomiques de la région cervicale que sur le réalisme de pratique de geste sur la région cervicale. Encore faut-il pouvoir dans la vrai vie pouvoir disposer d'une filière d'approvisionnement qui souvent se résume au boucher du quartier. 

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Objective: To compare the usefulness for training of a porcine model (larynx, trachea, and pig skin) and a manikin model using a Portex cricothyrotomy kit (PCK). 

Methods: In a prospective randomised crossover trial, participants in the airway workshop performed crico-thyrotomy using a PCK on the porcine and manikin models (Tracheostomy Trainer and Case). The porcine model was made with larynxes and trachea from freshly slaughtered pigs and covered with a piece of thinned pigskin stapled to a wooden board.

CricoPig.jpg

Participants were asked to assess the following: reality of skin turgor; difficulty with skin penetration, landmark recognition and procedure; reality of the model; and preference for each model using a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0–10 cm. The VAS scores for each model were compared. 

Results: 49 participants were included in the study. Mean (SD) VAS scores for the reality of skin turgor, degree of difficulty with skin penetration and landmark recognition were higher with the porcine model than with the manikin model (7.0 (2.1) vs 4.7 (2.0), 6.4 (2.4) vs 3.6 (2.2), 5.1 (2.2) vs 4.2 (2.5), respectively). There was no difference between the models in the difficulty of the procedure (5.0 (2.4) vs 4.7 (3.2)). The porcine model had a higher VAS score for overall reality and preference of the model (7.1 (2.0) vs 4.8 (2.3) and 7.1 (2.0) vs 4.8 (2.2), respectively).

CricoPig2.jpg

 Conclusion: The porcine model is a more useful training tool than the manikin model for cricothyrotomy with PCK because of its reality and similarity to human anatomy. 

| Tags : coniotomie

Crico: Pour en savoir plus en 5 min ?

Large-bore cricothyroidotomy devices

Patel B. et Al. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain(2008) (5): 157-160

 

L'article proposé fait une revue simple des divers équipements permettant la réalisation d'une coniotomie. Il apporte par ailleurs quelques compléments d'informations sur les facteurs de réussite de cette pratique dont l'éventualité d'occurrence est faible mais à laquelle il faut se préparer.

| Tags : coniotomie

Simulateur de crico: Encore le modèle porcin

A home-made animal model in comparison with a standard manikin for teaching percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2015 Feb;20(2):248-53

F1.medium.gif

 

13/03/2015

Simulation, simple est possible: La coniotomie

Il existe de nombreux simulateurs de coniotomie commerciaux. Ils sont onéreux tant à l'achat que dans leur entretien. Faire simple et peu onéreux est possible.

Premier exemple:

CriCTrainer6.jpg

Clic sur l'image pour accéder à la notice de montage 

Second exemple: 

CriCTrainer_E.jpg

Clic sur l'image pour accéder à la notice de montage

 

Troisième exemple

s12245-014-0046-z-3.jpg

Clic sur l'image pour accéder à la source

| Tags : coniotomie

Simulateur de crico: Un modèle animal facile

An Innovative and Inexpensive Model for Teaching Cricothyrotomy

Wang E. et Al Simul Healthc. 2007 Spring;2(1):25-9 

Une trachée animale: Ici de boeuf

coniotomie

On couvre avec un emballage souple

coniotomie

On s'entraîne

CricoTrainer.jpg

| Tags : coniotomie

12/03/2015

Simulateur de crico: Pas cher, c'est possible

 Every Surgical Resident Should Know How to Perform a Cricothyrotomy: An Inexpensive Cricothyrotomy Task Trainer for Teaching and Assessing Surgical Trainees.

Aho JM et Al. J Surg Educ. 2015 Feb 18. pii: S1931-7204(14)00346-8

OBJECTIVE:

Emergency cricothyrotomy is a rare but potentially lifesaving procedure. Training opportunities for surgical residents to learn this skill are limited, and many graduating residents have never performed one during their training. We aimed to develop and validate a novel and inexpensive cricothyrotomy task trainer that can be constructed from household items.

DESIGN:

A model was constructed using a toilet paper roll (trachea and larynx), Styrofoam (soft tissue), cardboard (thyroid cartilage), zip tie (cricoid), and fabric (skin). Participants were asked to complete a simulated cricothyrotomy procedure using the model. They were then evaluated using a 10-point checklist (5 points total) devised by 6 general surgeons. Participants were also asked to complete an anonymous survey rating the educational value and the degree of enjoyment regarding the model.

CricoTaskTrainer.jpg

SETTING:

A tertiary care teaching hospital.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 54 students and general surgery residents (11 medical students, 32 interns, and 11 postgraduate year 3 residents).

RESULTS:

All 54 participants completed the training and assessment. The scores ranged from 0 to 5. The mean (range) scores were 1.8 (1-4) for medical students, 3.5 (1-5) for junior residents, and 4.9 (4-5) for senior-level residents. Medical students were significantly outperformed by junior- and senior-level residents (p < 0.001). Trainees felt that the model was educational (4.5) and enjoyable (4.0).

CONCLUSIONS:

A low-fidelity, low-cost cricothyrotomy simulator distinguished the performance of emergency cricothyrotomy between medical students and junior- and senior-level general surgery residents. This task trainer may be ideally suited to providing basic skills to all physicians in training, especially in settings with limited resources and clinical opportunities.

 

| Tags : coniotomie, matériel

05/02/2015

Coniotomie: C'est du SC2 et il faut s'entraîner

Prehospital and en route cricothyrotomy performed in the combat setting: a prospective, multicenter, observational study.

Barnard EBG et All. J Spec Oper Med. 2014 Winter;14(4):35-9

INTRODUCTION:

Airway compromise is the third most common cause of potentially preventable combat death. Surgical cricothyrotomy is an infrequently performed but lifesaving airway intervention. There are limited published data on prehospital cricothyrotomy in civilian or military settings. Our aim was to prospectively describe the survival rate and complications associated with cricothyrotomy performed in the military prehospital and en route setting.

METHODS:

The Life-Saving Intervention (LSI) study is a prospective, institutional review board-approved, multicenter trial examining LSIs performed in the prehospital combat setting. We prospectively recorded LSIs performed on patients in theater who were transported to six combat hospitals. Trained site investigators evaluated patients on arrival and recorded demographics, vital signs, and LSIs performed. LSIs were predefined and include cricothyrotomies, chest tubes, intubations, tourniquets, and other procedures. From the large dataset, we analyzed patients who had a cricothyrotomy performed. Hospital outcomes were cross-referenced from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. Descriptive statistics or Wilcoxon test (nonparametric) were used for data comparisons; statistical significance was set at p <.05. The primary outcome was success of prehospital and en route cricothyrotomy.

RESULTS:

Of the 1,927 patients enrolled, 34 patients had a cricothyrotomy performed (1.8%). Median age was 24 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 22.5-25 years), 97% were men. Mechanisms of injury were blast (79%), penetrating (18%), and blunt force (3%), and 83% had major head, face, or neck injuries. Median Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) was 3 (IQR: 3?7.5) and four patients had GCS higher than 8. Cricothyrotomy was successful in 82% of cases. Reasons for failure included left main stem intubation (n = 1), subcutaneous passage (n = 1), and unsuccessful attempt (n = 4). Five patients had a prehospital basic airway intervention. Unsuccessful endotracheal intubation preceded 15% of cricothyrotomies. Of the 24 patients who had the provider type recorded, six had a cricothyrotomy by a combat medic (pre-evacuation), and 18 by an evacuation helicopter medic. Combat-hospital outcome data were available for 26 patients, 13 (50%) of whom survived to discharge. The cricothyrotomy patients had more LSIs than noncricothyrotomy patients (four versus two LSIs per patient; p <.0011).

CONCLUSION:

In our prospective, multicenter study evaluating cricothyrotomy in combat, procedural success was higher than previously reported. In addition, the majority of cricothyrotomies were performed by the evacuation helicopter medic rather than the prehospital combat medic. Prehospital military medics should receive training in decision making and be provided with adjuncts to facilitate this lifesaving procedure.

 

23/11/2014

Coniotomie: Quel diamètre ?

Morphometric analysis and clinical application of the working dimensions of cricothyroid membrane in south Indian adults: With special relevance to surgical cricothyroidotomy

 Prithishkumar IJ et Al. Emergency Medicine Australasia (2010) 22, 13–20

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L'anatomie de la membrane cricoïdienne fait l'objet de nombreuses description. Un des intérêts de ces dernières est de préciser la taille de cette dernière et d'en déduire le diamètre de canule/sonde le plus adapté pour une insertion intratrachéale. Il existe de grandes variations selon les populations étudiées, ici indienne. On peut retenir pour  notre population militaire essentiellement masculine une hauteur de  6 mm pour une largeur de 8 mm. C'est pourquoi la taille maximale des canules insérées à ce niveau ne doit excéder ces dimensions.

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Objective: To measure the working dimensions of the cricothyroid membrane in the adult south Indian population and to establish the association between the working dimensions and the appropriate endotracheal tube size for the purpose of cricothyroidotomy.

Methods: Cross-sectional evaluation of 50 fresh adult autopsy cases (35 men, 15 women) in a medical university teaching hospital in South India.

Results: Age ranged from 17.0 to 83.0 years. Working dimensions of the membrane in neutral position of neck, in men: width = 8.41  2.11 mm, height = 6.57  1.87 mm; in women: width = 6.30  1.29 mm, height = 5.80  1.56 mm. Depth of the subglottic larynx at the level of cricoid cartilage: men = 20.73  1.97 mm, women = 15.62  1.71 mm. Distance of the lower border of cricothyroid membrane from suprasternal notch in neutral position of neck, in men = 5.18  1.76 cm, women = 4.72  1.55 cm; in passively extended neck, men = 7.86  1.25 cm, women = 8.05  1.28 cm. Regression equations have been derived to determine endotracheal tube size for cricothyroidotomy, based on distance between sternal  notch and chin, and height of the individual (P < 0.05).

CricoSize.jpeg

Conclusions: Working dimensions are smaller in the Indian group compared with western publications. Endotracheal tubes ranging from size 3.0 to 6.0 might be used for cricothyroidotomy in the adult south Indian population. 

| Tags : coniotomie, airway

06/09/2014

Coniotomie: Comment en situation isolée ?

Optimizing Emergent Surgical Cricothyrotomy for use in Austere Environments.
 
Etre en capacité d'ouvrir le cou en cas d'instruction des voies aériennes est un savoir faire essentiel à la médicalisation de l'avant. Il n'est pas nécessaire de disposer de kit sophistiqué pour cela. une lame de bistouri de 20, un mandrin et une canule/sonde de 6 mm suffisent. C'est ce qu'exprime ce document. 
 
Emergent cricothyrotomy is an infrequently performed procedure used in the direst of circumstances on the most severely injured patients. Austere environments present further unique challenges to effective emergency medical practice. Recently, military trauma registry data were searched for the frequency of cricothyrotomy use and success rates during a 22-month period. These data revealed that cricothyrotomy performed in the most rigorous austere environment (ie, battlefield) had many successes, but also a large number of failed (33%) attempts by medics owing to many factors. Thus, the aim of this review article is to present what is known about cricothyrotomy and apply this knowledge to any austere environment for qualified providers. The National Library of Medicine’s PubMed was used to conduct a thorough search using the terms “prehospital,” “cricothyroidotomy,” “cricothyrotomy,” and “surgical airway.” The findings were further narrowed by applicability to the austere environment. This review presents relevant airway anatomy, incidences, indications, contraindications, procedures, and equipment, including improvised devices, success rates, complications, and training methods. Recommendations are proffered for ways to optimize procedures, equipment, and training for successful application of this emergent skill set in the austere environment.
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ConioChirAUstere.png

 

Clic sur l'image pour accéder à l'article

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

27/05/2014

Maîtrise de la coniotomie en environnement austère: Une nécessité.

Optimizing Emergent Surgical Cricothyrotomy for use in Austere Environments

HessertMJ et Al. Wilderness Environ Med. 2013 Mar;24(1):53-66

Although cricothyrotomy is becoming less common as other alternative airway devices are introduced, such as the laryngeal mask airway, King LT-D (King Systems Corp, Noblesville, IN), and other supraglottic devices, there is, and likely always will be, a role for cricothy- rotomy in a subsection of patients with difficult airways, especially in environments in which such devices are unlikely to be available. A common emergency medicine aphorism is: “If you do one cricothyrotomy, you’re a hero; if you do two, work on your airway skills.” True perhaps in a hospital, but in an austere environment many factors besides failed ET intubation lead to early cricothyrotomy. Wilderness providers must be not only technically skilled, but also adequately trained to recognize the key indications and situational decision triggers for cricothyrotomy that differ from in-hospital practice."

06/11/2013

Oxygénation transtrachéale de sauvetage

Viable oxygenation with cannula-overneedle cricothyrotomy for asphyxial airway occlusion

Kofke WA et Al. Br. J. Anaesth. (2011) 107 (4): 642-643.

Le recours à un cathéter veineux et une seringue pour la réalisation d'une coniotomie est souvent présenté comme un simple gadget.

CatheterOverNeedle.JPG

Cette technique a été mise en oeuvre dans le cadre de la prise en charge d'un arrêt circulatoire dans un bloc opéatoire. L'usage d'un cathéter de 14g, d'une seringue de 3ml associé à l'application continue doxygène à une pression de 35 à 4O mmHg a permis la restauration d'une oxygénation suffisante contribuant ainsi au succès des  manoeuvres de prise en charge de l'arrêt circulatoires.

CanulaOverNeedle.JPG

Le fait d'avoir à disposition une machine d'anesthésie permettant de générer une pression d'insufflation continue et élevée est certainement un élément essentiel à prendre en compte. Il n'est pas certain que ceci puisse être réalisé avec un BAVU sauf à bien obturer la valve notamment celle de surpression si elle existe. 

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

Coniotomie: Chirurgicale avec un mandrin

Comparison of a percutaneous device and the bougie-assisted surgical technique for emergency cricothyrotomy: an experimental study on a porcine model performed by air ambulance anaesthesiologists

Nakstad et al. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2013, 21:59

Background: A large number of techniques and devices for cricothyroidotomy have been developed. In this study, the Portex™ Cricothyroidotomy Kit (PCK, Smiths Medical Ltd, Hythe, UK) was compared with the bougie assisted emergency surgical cricothyrotomy technique (BACT).

Methods: Twenty air ambulance anaesthesiologists performed emergency cricothyrotomy on a cadaveric porcine airway model using both PCK and BACT. Baseline performance and performance after the intensive training package were recorded. Success rate, time to secured airway and tracheal damage were the primary endpoints, and confidence rating was a secondary endpoint.

Results: During baseline testing, success rates for PCK and BACT were 60% and 95%, respectively. Tracheal injury rate with PCK was 60% while no such injury was found in BACT. A lecture was given and skills were trained until the participants were able to perform five consecutive successful procedures with both techniques. In the posttraining test, all participants were successful with either technique. The mean time to successful insertion was reduced by 15.7 seconds (from 36.3 seconds to 20.6 seconds, p< 0.001) for PCK and by 7.8 seconds (from 44.9 seconds to 37.1 seconds, p=0.021) for BACT. In the post-training scenario, securing the airway with PCK was significantly faster than with BACT (p<0.001). Post-training tracheal laceration occurred in six (30%) of the PCK procedures and in none of the BACT procedures (p=0.028). The self-evaluated confidence level was measured both pre- and post-training using a confidence scale with 10 indicating maximum amount of confidence. The median values increased from 4 to 8 for PCK and from 6.5 to 9.5 for BACT. All participants reported that BACT was their preferred technique.

BougieAIdConio.JPG

Conclusions: Testing the base-line PCK skills of prehospital anaesthesiologists revealed low confidence, sub-optimal performance and a very high failure rate. The BACT technique demonstrated a significantly higher success rate and no tracheal damage. In spite of PCK being a significantly faster technique in the post-training test, the anaesthesiologists still reported a higher confidence in BACT. Limitations of the cadaveric porcine airway may have influenced this study because the airway did not challenge the clinicians with realistic tissue bleeding.

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

Coniotomie: On fait le point

Emergency cricothyrotomy - A systematic review 

Langvad F. et Al. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2013 21:43

Une revue exhaustive de ce qui est publié sur le sujet. Il en ressort qu'il n'existe pas vraiment d'avantages d'une technique sur une autre, qu'en condition extrême une technique chirurgicale semble préférable. Le point clé est l'expérience et l'entraînement de celui qui la réalise.

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Background: An emergency cricothyrotomy is the last-resort in most airway management protocols and is performed when it is not possible to intubate or ventilate a patient. This situation can rapidly prove fatal, making it important to identify the best method to establish a secure airway. We conducted a systematic review to identify whether there exists superiority between available commercial kits versus traditional surgical and needle techniques.

Methods: Medline, EMBASE and other databases were searched for pertinent studies. The inclusion criteria included manikin, animal and human studies and there were no restrictions regarding the professional background of the person performing the procedure.

Results: In total, 1,405 unique references were identified; 108 full text articles were retrieved; and 24 studies were included in the review. Studies comparing kits with one another or with various surgical and needle techniques were identified. The outcome measures included in this systematic review were success rate and time consumption. The investigators performing the studies had chosen unique combinations of starting and stopping points for time measurements, making comparisons between studies difficult and leading to many conflicting results. No single method was shown to be better than the others, but the size of the studies makes it impossible to draw firm conclusions.

Conclusions: The large majority of the studies were too small to demonstrate statistically significant differences, and the limited available evidence was of low or very low quality. That none of the techniques in these studies demonstrated better results than the others does not necessarily indicate that each is equally good, and these conclusions will likely change as new evidence becomes available

clic ici pour accéder au document

| Tags : coniotomie, airway

05/11/2013

Coniotomie: Un nouveau set

A Comparison of Two Open Surgical Cricothyroidotomy Techniques by Military Medics Using a Cadaver Model


Mabry RL et All., Ann EmergMed. 2013;-:1-5

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Le taux d'échec observé est d'environ 33%. Aussi est on toujours à la recherche de dispositifs d'aide à la réalisation de ce geste considéré comme essentiel. L'originalité du kit présenté ici tient à son guide qui a une forme particulière censée améliorer la performance des combat medics. Relisez la fiche technique de la coniotomie en sachant que vous pouvez vous servir du mandrin d'eschmann comme guide d'insertion si vous avez recours à la technique chirurgicale ce qui est recommandé.

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Study objective: The CricKey is a novel surgical cricothyroidotomy device combining the functions of a tracheal hook, stylet, dilator, and bougie incorporated with a Melker airway cannula. This study compares surgical cricothyroidotomy with standard open surgical versus CricKey technique.

CricKey.JPG
Methods: This was a prospective crossover study using human cadaveric models. Participants included US Army combat medics credentialed at the emergency medical technician–basic level. After a brief anatomy review and demonstration, participants performed in random order standard open surgical cricothyroidotomy and CricKey surgical cricothyroidotomy. The primary outcome was first-pass success, and the secondary outcome measure was procedural time.

Results: First-attempt success was 100% (15/15) for CricKey surgical cricothyroidotomy and 66% (10/15) for open surgical cricothyroidotomy (odds ratio 16.0; 95% confidence interval 0.8 to 326). Surgical cricothyroidotomy insertion was faster for CricKey than open technique (34 versus 65 seconds; median time difference 28 seconds; 95% confidence interval 16 to 48 seconds).

Conclusion: Compared with the standard open surgical cricothyroidotomy technique, military medics demonstrated faster insertion with the CricKey. First-pass success was not significantly different between the techniques

| Tags : coniotomie, airway

20/04/2013

Coniotomie: Avant tout de bons repères

ConioFinger.jpeg

La réalisation d'une coniotomie en conditions extrêmes n'est pas une chose si aisée que cela. Bien souvent l'opérateur peut être obnubilé par le fait de faire pénétrer un tuyau dans un trou alors que ce qui est important c'est le trou au bon endroit et de taille suffisamment large pour admettre le tuyau. Au final ce qui est FONDAMENTAL c'est donc de prendre ses repères et de vérifier le diamêtre de l'ouverture faite.

C'est ce qu'exprime ce document intéressant et très pratique dont l'un des auteurs est un des inventeurs d'une technqiue de trachéotomie percutanée.

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The first step of the ‘scalpel–finger–tube’ method is to stabilize the larynx with the non-dominant hand, identify the cricothyroid membrane visually and by palpation, and to incise horizontally all the way through skin and cricothyroid membrane into the laryngeal lumen in one motion (Fig. 1).

Fiststep.jpeg

In the emergency situation, neither skin antiseptics nor local anaesthesia are used.Any suitable blade can be used, either on or off the handle. The incision is extended laterally until judgedlarge enough to accommodate the tip of the operator’s gloved little finger, that is, approximately 15 mm. The second step is to remove the scalpel and insert the tip of the operator’s little finger into the incision (Fig. 2), confirming by palpation that the incision has penetratedinto the laryngeal lumen, and that the incision is large enough to accommodate the finger, and therefore, an endotracheal tube.

ScdStep.jpeg

Finally, in the third step, a cuffed oral endotracheal tube is fed through the hole into the trachea, directed somewhat caudally (Fig. 3)

tHIRDsTEP.jpeg

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| Tags : airway, coniotomie

17/11/2012

Coniotomie / Cricothyrotomie

L'accès aux voies aériennes: Plan A: liberté des voies aériennes par les manoeuvres de secourisme, la mise en place d'une guédel et l'intubation. Plan B: Je n'oublie pas que l'essentiel est de pouvoir ventiler, donc j'ai un ballon. Plan C: Si je n'arrive pas à intuber et à ventiler, je n'hésite pas à OUVRIR LE COU

Vidéo de démonstration

07/04/2012

Coniotomie et analyse cognitive de taches

L’analyse cognitive de tâches est une « famille de techniques de recueil de connaissances qui ont démontrées leur efficacité pour extraire les processus cognitifs, décisionnels et de jugements inobservables impliqués lors d’une performance d’expert» (Yates 2007). L’intérêt de ce groupe de techniques est de rendre accessible à la conscience l’ensemble des étapes réalisées de façon automatiques par des experts.

Cette méthode moderne d'enseignement est très certainement d'un apport capital pour l'enseignement du sauvetage au combat. Ainsi il semble qu'elle peut s'appliquer à la coniotomie. C'est du moins ce que laisse supposer l'article suivant. 

 

The effectiveness of a cognitive task analysis informed curriculum to increase self-efficacy and improve performance for an open cricothyrotomy.

Campbell J.. et all J Surg Educ. 2011 Sep-Oct;68(5):403-7

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study explored the effects of a cognitive task analysis (CTA)-informed curriculum to increase surgical skills performance and self-efficacy beliefs for medical students and postgraduate surgical residents learning how to perform an open cricothyrotomy.

METHODS:

Third-year medical students and postgraduate year 2 and 3 surgery residents were assigned randomly to either the CTA group (n = 12) or the control group (n = 14). The CTA group learned the open cricothyrotomy procedure using the CTA curriculum. The control group received the traditional curriculum.

RESULTS:

The CTA group outperformed the control group significantly based on a 19-point checklist score (CTA mean score: 17.75, standard deviation [SD] = 2.34; control mean score: 15.14, SD = 2.48; p = 0.006). The CTA group also reported significantly higher self-efficacy scores based on a 140-point self-appraisal inventory (CTA mean score: 126.10, SD = 16.90; control: 110.67, SD = 16.8; p = 0.029).

 

CricoCognitive1.jpg

CONCLUSIONS:

The CTA curriculum was effective in increasing the performance and self-efficacy scores for postgraduate surgical residents and medical students performing an open cricothyrotomy.

 

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| Tags : airway, coniotomie