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27/05/2014

Maîtrise de la coniotomie en environnement austère: Une nécessité.

Optimizing Emergent Surgical Cricothyrotomy for use in Austere Environments

HessertMJ et Al. Wilderness Environ Med. 2013 Mar;24(1):53-66

Although cricothyrotomy is becoming less common as other alternative airway devices are introduced, such as the laryngeal mask airway, King LT-D (King Systems Corp, Noblesville, IN), and other supraglottic devices, there is, and likely always will be, a role for cricothy- rotomy in a subsection of patients with difficult airways, especially in environments in which such devices are unlikely to be available. A common emergency medicine aphorism is: “If you do one cricothyrotomy, you’re a hero; if you do two, work on your airway skills.” True perhaps in a hospital, but in an austere environment many factors besides failed ET intubation lead to early cricothyrotomy. Wilderness providers must be not only technically skilled, but also adequately trained to recognize the key indications and situational decision triggers for cricothyrotomy that differ from in-hospital practice."

07/12/2013

Rupture cricotrachéale: Que faire ?

Cricotracheal Separation after Gunshot to the Neck: Report of a Survivor with Recovery of Bilateral Vocal Fold Function.

Vivero RJ et Al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.08.090

Il s'agit d'une éventualité rarissime mais cette observation montre qu'en situation d'isolement extrême il peut être possible d'agir si la partie distale est visible. Encore faut il connaître l'existence de cette conduite à tenir.

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Initial appropriate airway management is imperative to improve survival. Numerous case reports in the literature demonstrate incidental findings of airway injury after routine workup of the patient or the advent of ominous clinical findings (1,2) . At this stage in patient management, it can become difficult to adequately secure the airway, which places the patient at increased risk. A careful physical examination is therefore critical, with fiberoptic laryngoscopy used, as necessary, in the stable patient. A CT scan can be a useful adjunct in the clinical workup, but it should not be relied upon solely, as it can be inconclusive (3) . When cricotracheal separation is identified and the patient is stable, the airway should be secured surgically in the operating room or trauma bay. The proximal stump of the airway should be grasped and secured with a clamp, and then an awake tracheotomy performed (under local anesthesia if possible) distal to the injury. In the event that the patient is unstable or that intubation fails, the distal stump of the trachea should be identified either visually or by palpation. The stump of trachea should then be grasped with a clamp and pulled superficially (out of the wound toward the skin surface), and an appropriately sized endotracheal tube is placed as a temporary measure and secured. The clamp should not be removed from the airway, as the distal tracheal stump can retract into the mediastinum. The patient should then be taken to the operating room emergently for formal tracheotomy or maturation of the airway tracheostoma. In general, cricothyrotomy should not be performed, as this is usually proximal to the site of airway separation.

| Tags : airway

06/11/2013

Oxygénation transtrachéale de sauvetage

Viable oxygenation with cannula-overneedle cricothyrotomy for asphyxial airway occlusion

Kofke WA et Al. Br. J. Anaesth. (2011) 107 (4): 642-643.

Le recours à un cathéter veineux et une seringue pour la réalisation d'une coniotomie est souvent présenté comme un simple gadget.

CatheterOverNeedle.JPG

Cette technique a été mise en oeuvre dans le cadre de la prise en charge d'un arrêt circulatoire dans un bloc opéatoire. L'usage d'un cathéter de 14g, d'une seringue de 3ml associé à l'application continue doxygène à une pression de 35 à 4O mmHg a permis la restauration d'une oxygénation suffisante contribuant ainsi au succès des  manoeuvres de prise en charge de l'arrêt circulatoires.

CanulaOverNeedle.JPG

Le fait d'avoir à disposition une machine d'anesthésie permettant de générer une pression d'insufflation continue et élevée est certainement un élément essentiel à prendre en compte. Il n'est pas certain que ceci puisse être réalisé avec un BAVU sauf à bien obturer la valve notamment celle de surpression si elle existe. 

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

Coniotomie: Chirurgicale avec un mandrin

Comparison of a percutaneous device and the bougie-assisted surgical technique for emergency cricothyrotomy: an experimental study on a porcine model performed by air ambulance anaesthesiologists

Nakstad et al. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2013, 21:59

Background: A large number of techniques and devices for cricothyroidotomy have been developed. In this study, the Portex™ Cricothyroidotomy Kit (PCK, Smiths Medical Ltd, Hythe, UK) was compared with the bougie assisted emergency surgical cricothyrotomy technique (BACT).

Methods: Twenty air ambulance anaesthesiologists performed emergency cricothyrotomy on a cadaveric porcine airway model using both PCK and BACT. Baseline performance and performance after the intensive training package were recorded. Success rate, time to secured airway and tracheal damage were the primary endpoints, and confidence rating was a secondary endpoint.

Results: During baseline testing, success rates for PCK and BACT were 60% and 95%, respectively. Tracheal injury rate with PCK was 60% while no such injury was found in BACT. A lecture was given and skills were trained until the participants were able to perform five consecutive successful procedures with both techniques. In the posttraining test, all participants were successful with either technique. The mean time to successful insertion was reduced by 15.7 seconds (from 36.3 seconds to 20.6 seconds, p< 0.001) for PCK and by 7.8 seconds (from 44.9 seconds to 37.1 seconds, p=0.021) for BACT. In the post-training scenario, securing the airway with PCK was significantly faster than with BACT (p<0.001). Post-training tracheal laceration occurred in six (30%) of the PCK procedures and in none of the BACT procedures (p=0.028). The self-evaluated confidence level was measured both pre- and post-training using a confidence scale with 10 indicating maximum amount of confidence. The median values increased from 4 to 8 for PCK and from 6.5 to 9.5 for BACT. All participants reported that BACT was their preferred technique.

BougieAIdConio.JPG

Conclusions: Testing the base-line PCK skills of prehospital anaesthesiologists revealed low confidence, sub-optimal performance and a very high failure rate. The BACT technique demonstrated a significantly higher success rate and no tracheal damage. In spite of PCK being a significantly faster technique in the post-training test, the anaesthesiologists still reported a higher confidence in BACT. Limitations of the cadaveric porcine airway may have influenced this study because the airway did not challenge the clinicians with realistic tissue bleeding.

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

Coniotomie: On fait le point

Emergency cricothyrotomy - A systematic review 

Langvad F. et Al. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2013 21:43

Une revue exhaustive de ce qui est publié sur le sujet. Il en ressort qu'il n'existe pas vraiment d'avantages d'une technique sur une autre, qu'en condition extrême une technique chirurgicale semble préférable. Le point clé est l'expérience et l'entraînement de celui qui la réalise.

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Background: An emergency cricothyrotomy is the last-resort in most airway management protocols and is performed when it is not possible to intubate or ventilate a patient. This situation can rapidly prove fatal, making it important to identify the best method to establish a secure airway. We conducted a systematic review to identify whether there exists superiority between available commercial kits versus traditional surgical and needle techniques.

Methods: Medline, EMBASE and other databases were searched for pertinent studies. The inclusion criteria included manikin, animal and human studies and there were no restrictions regarding the professional background of the person performing the procedure.

Results: In total, 1,405 unique references were identified; 108 full text articles were retrieved; and 24 studies were included in the review. Studies comparing kits with one another or with various surgical and needle techniques were identified. The outcome measures included in this systematic review were success rate and time consumption. The investigators performing the studies had chosen unique combinations of starting and stopping points for time measurements, making comparisons between studies difficult and leading to many conflicting results. No single method was shown to be better than the others, but the size of the studies makes it impossible to draw firm conclusions.

Conclusions: The large majority of the studies were too small to demonstrate statistically significant differences, and the limited available evidence was of low or very low quality. That none of the techniques in these studies demonstrated better results than the others does not necessarily indicate that each is equally good, and these conclusions will likely change as new evidence becomes available

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| Tags : coniotomie, airway

05/11/2013

Coniotomie: Un nouveau set

A Comparison of Two Open Surgical Cricothyroidotomy Techniques by Military Medics Using a Cadaver Model


Mabry RL et All., Ann EmergMed. 2013;-:1-5

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Le taux d'échec observé est d'environ 33%. Aussi est on toujours à la recherche de dispositifs d'aide à la réalisation de ce geste considéré comme essentiel. L'originalité du kit présenté ici tient à son guide qui a une forme particulière censée améliorer la performance des combat medics. Relisez la fiche technique de la coniotomie en sachant que vous pouvez vous servir du mandrin d'eschmann comme guide d'insertion si vous avez recours à la technique chirurgicale ce qui est recommandé.

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Study objective: The CricKey is a novel surgical cricothyroidotomy device combining the functions of a tracheal hook, stylet, dilator, and bougie incorporated with a Melker airway cannula. This study compares surgical cricothyroidotomy with standard open surgical versus CricKey technique.

CricKey.JPG
Methods: This was a prospective crossover study using human cadaveric models. Participants included US Army combat medics credentialed at the emergency medical technician–basic level. After a brief anatomy review and demonstration, participants performed in random order standard open surgical cricothyroidotomy and CricKey surgical cricothyroidotomy. The primary outcome was first-pass success, and the secondary outcome measure was procedural time.

Results: First-attempt success was 100% (15/15) for CricKey surgical cricothyroidotomy and 66% (10/15) for open surgical cricothyroidotomy (odds ratio 16.0; 95% confidence interval 0.8 to 326). Surgical cricothyroidotomy insertion was faster for CricKey than open technique (34 versus 65 seconds; median time difference 28 seconds; 95% confidence interval 16 to 48 seconds).

Conclusion: Compared with the standard open surgical cricothyroidotomy technique, military medics demonstrated faster insertion with the CricKey. First-pass success was not significantly different between the techniques

| Tags : coniotomie, airway

20/04/2013

Coniotomie: Avant tout de bons repères

ConioFinger.jpeg

La réalisation d'une coniotomie en conditions extrêmes n'est pas une chose si aisée que cela. Bien souvent l'opérateur peut être obnubilé par le fait de faire pénétrer un tuyau dans un trou alors que ce qui est important c'est le trou au bon endroit et de taille suffisamment large pour admettre le tuyau. Au final ce qui est FONDAMENTAL c'est donc de prendre ses repères et de vérifier le diamêtre de l'ouverture faite.

C'est ce qu'exprime ce document intéressant et très pratique dont l'un des auteurs est un des inventeurs d'une technqiue de trachéotomie percutanée.

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The first step of the ‘scalpel–finger–tube’ method is to stabilize the larynx with the non-dominant hand, identify the cricothyroid membrane visually and by palpation, and to incise horizontally all the way through skin and cricothyroid membrane into the laryngeal lumen in one motion (Fig. 1).

Fiststep.jpeg

In the emergency situation, neither skin antiseptics nor local anaesthesia are used.Any suitable blade can be used, either on or off the handle. The incision is extended laterally until judgedlarge enough to accommodate the tip of the operator’s gloved little finger, that is, approximately 15 mm. The second step is to remove the scalpel and insert the tip of the operator’s little finger into the incision (Fig. 2), confirming by palpation that the incision has penetratedinto the laryngeal lumen, and that the incision is large enough to accommodate the finger, and therefore, an endotracheal tube.

ScdStep.jpeg

Finally, in the third step, a cuffed oral endotracheal tube is fed through the hole into the trachea, directed somewhat caudally (Fig. 3)

tHIRDsTEP.jpeg

Accéder à la publication

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

08/11/2012

Coniotomie: Pas le kit PCK

 Emergency cricothyroidotomy performed by inexperienced clinicians--surgical technique versus indicator-guided puncture technique

Emerg Med J. 2012 Jul 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Background To improve the ease and safety of cricothyroidotomy especially in the hand of the inexperienced, new instruments have been developed. In this study, we compared a new indicator-guided puncture technique (PCK) with standard surgical technique (ST) regarding success rate, performance time and complications.

Methods Cricothyroidotomy in 30 human cadavers performed by 30 first year anaesthesia residents. The set chosen for use was randomised: PCK-technique (n=15) and ST (n=15). Success rates, insertion times and complications were compared. Traumatic lesions were anatomically confirmed after dissection.

Results The ST-group had a higher success rate (100% vs 67%; p=0.04). There was no difference in time taken to complete the procedure (PCK 82 s. vs ST 95 s.; p=0.89). There was a higher complication rate in the PCK-group (67% vs 13%; p=0.04). Most frequent complication in the PCK-group was injury to the posterior tracheal wall (n=8), penetration to the oesophageal lumen (n=4) and injury to the thyroid and/or cricoid cartilage (n=5). In the ST-group in only 2 cases minor complications were observed (small vessel injury).

Conclusions In this human cadaver study the PCK technique produced more major complications and more failures than the ST. In the hand of the inexperienced operator the standard surgical approach seems to be a safe procedure, which can successfully be performed within an adequate time. The PCK technique cannot be recommended for inexperienced operators.

 

07/04/2012

Coniotomie et analyse cognitive de taches

L’analyse cognitive de tâches est une « famille de techniques de recueil de connaissances qui ont démontrées leur efficacité pour extraire les processus cognitifs, décisionnels et de jugements inobservables impliqués lors d’une performance d’expert» (Yates 2007). L’intérêt de ce groupe de techniques est de rendre accessible à la conscience l’ensemble des étapes réalisées de façon automatiques par des experts.

Cette méthode moderne d'enseignement est très certainement d'un apport capital pour l'enseignement du sauvetage au combat. Ainsi il semble qu'elle peut s'appliquer à la coniotomie. C'est du moins ce que laisse supposer l'article suivant. 

 

The effectiveness of a cognitive task analysis informed curriculum to increase self-efficacy and improve performance for an open cricothyrotomy.

Campbell J.. et all J Surg Educ. 2011 Sep-Oct;68(5):403-7

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study explored the effects of a cognitive task analysis (CTA)-informed curriculum to increase surgical skills performance and self-efficacy beliefs for medical students and postgraduate surgical residents learning how to perform an open cricothyrotomy.

METHODS:

Third-year medical students and postgraduate year 2 and 3 surgery residents were assigned randomly to either the CTA group (n = 12) or the control group (n = 14). The CTA group learned the open cricothyrotomy procedure using the CTA curriculum. The control group received the traditional curriculum.

RESULTS:

The CTA group outperformed the control group significantly based on a 19-point checklist score (CTA mean score: 17.75, standard deviation [SD] = 2.34; control mean score: 15.14, SD = 2.48; p = 0.006). The CTA group also reported significantly higher self-efficacy scores based on a 140-point self-appraisal inventory (CTA mean score: 126.10, SD = 16.90; control: 110.67, SD = 16.8; p = 0.029).

 

CricoCognitive1.jpg

CONCLUSIONS:

The CTA curriculum was effective in increasing the performance and self-efficacy scores for postgraduate surgical residents and medical students performing an open cricothyrotomy.

 

Lire aussi

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

12/11/2011

Cause de décès en afghanistan: Actualités canadiennes

Causes of Death in Canadian Forces Members Deployed to Afghanistan and Implications on Tactical Combat Casualty Care Provision

Pannell D et all. J Trauma. 2011;71: S401–S407

DeathCan.JPG

Ce document identifie par ailleurs l'importance de la formation des personels à la gestion des voies aériennes, des mesures de stabilisation du rachis en cas d'IED, du recours aux sondes de foley pour le tamponenment des hémorragies jonctionnelles en cas de non application possible de pansement hémostatique.

-------Morceaux choisis:

We recommend that combat medical technicians should continue to practice surgical airways in live-tissue laboratories. In addition, didactic teaching should continue to review the indications for cricothyrotomy on the battlefield. .........

...... Based on this review, we also feel that future Canadian TCCC courses may be improved by giving battlefield providers a treatment option for dealing with exsanguination from small wounds at junctional areas (groin, axillary, and neck). Currently, TCCC providers only have hemostatic dressings to deal with this difficult problem. However, unfavorable wound geometry can make utilization of these products unfeasible. In addition, TCCC providers have no option for treating carotid artery hemorrhage in the neck. We suggest that combat medical technicians also carry urinary catheters; these can be inserted into wound tracts of small wounds. Insufflation of the balloon may provide temporary hemostasis of junctional bleeding and buy enough time for evacuation to a definitive surgical facility. Another option would be to pack such wounds with ribbon gauze. These options may also be used for posterior packing of lifethreatening epistaxis associated with facial fractures.
On our review, we also noted that three casualties.....

....we recommend that spinal immobilization be considered for all casualties suffering from blunt trauma or IED-related incidents during “Tactical Field Care,” if the tactical situation permits, and if the medical technician deems the situation to be safe enough to proceed with this procedure.

 

08/09/2011

Alternative à l'intubation: D'abord la coniotomie chirurgicale !

A meta-analysis of prehospital airway control technique part II: alternative airway devices and cricothyrotomy success rate. Hubble MW et all. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2010 Oct-Dec;14(4):515-30.

Ce document est une métaanalyse récente qui le point dans la littérature sur les alternatives à l'intubation. Elle confirme que la coniotomie chirurgicale est la technique de référence. Elle précise que le tube de King est le dispositiflaryngé le plus pertinent mais qu'il manque globalement de recul sur ces dispositifs. 

 

BACKGROUND:

 

Airway management is a key component of prehospital care for seriously ill and injured patients. Oral endotracheal intubation (OETI) is the definitive airway of choice in most emergency medical services (EMS) systems. However, OETI may not be an approved skill for some clinicians or may prove problematic in certain patients because of anatomic abnormalities, trauma, or inadequate relaxation. In these situations alternative airways are frequently employed. However, the reported success rates for these devices vary widely, and established benchmarks are lacking.

OBJECTIVE:

We sought to determine pooled estimates of the success rates of alternative airway devices (AADs) and needle cricothyrotomy (NCRIC) and surgical cricothyrotomy (SCRIC) placement through a meta-analysis of the literature.We sought to determine pooled estimates of the success rates of alternative airway devices (AADs) and needle cricothyrotomy (NCRIC) and surgical cricothyrotomy (SCRIC) placement through a meta-analysis of the literature.

METHODS:

 

We performed a systematic literature search for all English-language articles reporting success rates for AADs, SCRIC, and NCRIC. Studies of field procedures performed by prehospital personnel from any nation were included. All titles were reviewed independently by two authors using prespecified inclusion criteria. Pooled estimates of success rates for each airway technique were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis model.

RESULTS:

 

Of 2,005 prehospital airway titles identified, 35 unique studies were retained for analysis of AAD success rates, encompassing a total of 10,172 prehospital patients. The success rates for SCRIC and NCRIC were analyzed across an additional 21 studies totaling 512 patients. The pooled estimates (and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for intervention success across all clinicians and patients were as follows: esophageal obturator airway-esophageal gastric tube airway (EOA-EGTA) 92.6% (90.1%-94.5%); pharyngeotracheal lumen airway (PTLA) 82.1% (74.0%-88.0%); esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC) 85.4% (77.3%-91.0%); laryngeal mask airway (LMA) 87.4% (79.0%-92.8%); King Laryngeal Tube airway (King LT) 96.5% (71.2%-99.7%); NCRIC 65.8% (42.3%-83.59%); and SCRIC 90.5% (84.8%-94.2%).

CONCLUSIONS:

 

We provide pooled estimates for prehospital AAD, NCRIC, and SCRIC airway interventions. Of the AADs, the King LT demonstrated the highest insertion success rate (96.5%), although this estimate is based on limited data, and data regarding its ventilatory effectiveness are lacking; more data are available for the ETC and LMA. The ETC, LMA, and PTLA all had similar-but lower-success rates (82.1%-87.4%). NCRIC has a low rate of success (65.8%); SCRIC has a much higher success rate (90.5%) and should be considered the preferred percutaneous rescue airway.

14/12/2010

Abord des voies aériennes:Que font les anglais ?

10 % des blessés évacués nécessite une intubation dont 4.7% avant l'embarquement dans le vecteur d'évacuation. Dans ce travail la limite est que nous ne savons pas ce qui relève de blessés au combat , s'il s'agit de blessés militaires, de la répartition des procédures en fonction du contexte. Dans de telles conditions la prise en charge de patients/blessés en arrêt circulatoire est vaine .

J R Army Med Corps. 2010 Sep;156(3):159-61.

 

Advanced airway management--a medical emergency response team perspective.

Haldane AG.

Selly Oak Hospital, Birmingham. aghaldane1@doctors.org.uk

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the number of medical emergency response team (MERT) patients undergoing advanced airway management in the peri-evacuation phase and to determine the indications for airway interventions undertaken in flight.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Data was collected from patient report and mission debrief forms completed after each MERT mission during Operation HERRICK 10 (April-October 2009). All patients that received advanced airway interventions before or during evacuation were identified.

RESULTS: MERTs were involved in the primary transfer of 534 patients during the period studied, 56 (10.5%) underwent advanced airway management, of which 31 (5.8% of total) were initiated by the MERT in the peri-evacuation phase. Twenty five cases (4.7%) underwent advanced airway management by other pre-hospital providers prior to MERT arrival. Of the 31 advanced airway interventions undertaken in-flight, cardiac arrest was the primary indication in only nine cases.

CONCLUSIONS: The figure of 56 patients requiring advanced airway management is at the higher end of the range expected from the study of historical military data. This may reflect the doctrine of "intelligent tasking", that is sending this physician-led team to the most seriously injured casualties.

 

Morceaux choisis

1. Intubation et coniotomie sont la base

 

 

VAS_UK2010.JPG

2. Les indications diffèrent de la médecine préhospitalière civile

"..

The indications  for those advanced airway interventions undertaken by the MERT  is in keeping with the historical data: Head injury making the biggest group once those inrubated for post-operative resplratory support ie those transferred post-operatively from an FST location rather than direct from the point of  wounding  are excluded . The majoriry of the cases were trauma (93,5%) with the remaining non-traula causes  (6,5%) (table 1);  This figure is again similar io the recent US study [11].

.."

 

| Tags : airway, intubation

06/12/2010

Protection des voies aériennes en urgence: Une synthèse à lire

Protection des voies aériennes en médecine d’urgence

Journal Européen des Urgences (2010) 23, 44—56

X. Combes, P. Jabre, F. Soupizet

Le résumé

Le contrôle des voies aériennes des patients présentant une détresse vitale est très souvent nécessaire en médecine d’urgence. L’intubation orotrachéale est la technique de référence pour le contrôle des voies aériennes. En dehors du cadre de la réanimation de l’arrêt cardiaque, l’intubation trachéale doit être reéalisée sur un patient sédaté et curarisé selon la technique d’intubation en séquence rapide. L’intubation en urgence est une intubation à risques. L’inhalation pulmonaire et les épisodes de désaturation artérielle profonde sont les deux complications les plus fréquemment associées à ce geste. En médecine d’urgence, l’intubation difficile, rarement prévisible, est plus fréquente qu’au bloc opératoire. La prise en charge de

l’intubation difficile survenant dans le cadre de la médecine d’urgence repose sur l’utilisation de techniques alternatives efficaces. Ces techniques doivent être utilisées selon un algorithme précis. Les mandrins longs béquillés et le masque laryngé d’intubation de type Fastrach TM permettent de résoudre la majorité des cas d’intubation difficile. En cas d’échec de ces deux techniques, une cricothyroïdotomie permettant un abord trachéal direct doit être réalisée chez les patients impossibles à ventiler.

Morceaux choisis

1. On considère qu’un médecin exerçant en SMUR intube annuellement de 15 à 20 patients. Ces chiffres sont à mettre en parallèle avec les données disponibles pour l’activité anesthésique nationale où environ trois millions de patients sont intubés tous les ans au bloc opératoire par des médecins anesthésistes qui intubent chacun en moyenne plus de 300 patients par an.

Un minimum de 40 intubations pour apprendre l'intubation est nécessaire et 20  par an sont nécessaires pour entretenir cette compétence. Cela signifie que la maîtrise de l'abord des VAS est l'objectif principal de la formation continue du médecin d'unité de telle sorte qu'il soit toujours en capacité de faire face à une obstruction des VAS en condition de combat.

2. Les dispositifs laryngés sont probablement plus faciles à insérer pour des opérateurs non médecins que la sonde d’intubation. Les deux problèmes majeurs rencontrés lors de l’utilisation de ce type de matériel sont le risque d’inhalation pulmonaire et le risque de perforation œsophagienne. En effet, ces dispositifs n’assurent pas une protection complète des voies aériennes en cas de vomissement et le risque d’inhalation est alors réel. Plusieurs cas de déchirure du tiers supérieur de l’œsophage ont été rapportés lors de l’utilisation du Combitube®, liés à la surpression régnant dans le ballonnet œsophagien de ce dispositif.

3. En médecine préhospitalière, les circonstances font que très souvent les patients qui nécessitent une intubation en urgence sont pris en charge alors qu’ils sont allongés sur le sol. L’intubation d’un patient au sol présente quelques difficultés particulières. L’opérateur est en effet dans une position le plus souvent pénible pour réaliser son geste et l’intubation est rendue plus difficile. Une technique de positionnement de l’opérateur visant à limiter les difficultés d’intubation a été décrite récemment. Elle consiste à positionner la personne qui va intuber en décubitus latéral. Dans cette position, l’axe visuel de l’opérateur est abaissé et la visualisation glottique, indispensable pour réaliser l’intubation, est rendue beaucoup plus aisée.

4. Parmi les dispositifs laryngés utilisables en préhospitalier, il faut choisir le FASTRACH car son emploi est documenté et qu'il permet l'intubation orotrachéale.

5.  La cricothyroïdotomie représente la technique ultime de contrôle des voies aériennes proposée dans le cas où l’intubation et la ventilation du patient restent impossibles malgré l’utilisation des autres techniques alternatives que sont les mandrins et les dispositifs supraglottiques. ......Cette technique est de réalisation très rapide et permet une ventilation efficace dans plus de 95 % des cas.
6. Un algorithme

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19/11/2010

Masque laryngé: Êtes vous sûr ?

 

La place des dispositifs laryngés pour le contrôle des voies aériennes en condition de combat est très limitée. Ces dispositifs ne font pas partie des mesures recommandées par le TCCC et le BATLS, car ils ne ne répondent pas aux critères essentiels qui sont d'assurer l'ouverture des voies aériennes en cas de plaie maxillo-faciale, ils ne protègent pas des risques d'inhalation, ils ne dispensent pas de la réalisation d'une sédation, ils sont susceptibles de mobilisation, enfin ils ne représente pas la première ligne de traitement pour la prise en charge d'une détresse respiratoire en condition de combat.

L'article suivant expose un certain nombre de désagrément lié à l'emploi de l'un de ces dispositifs. 

Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2009; 53 (4):414-424

Troubleshooting ProSeal LMA

Bimla Sharma, Jayashree Sood  , Chand Sahai , V P Kumra

Summary

Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a bigway in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMA at times may be associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA). However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placement to assess the ventilatory and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraoperatively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity.

 

26/10/2010

Coniotomie: Connaître l'anatomie aide

Une publication récente résume de manière simple ce qu'il faut savoir, et tout cela en anglais bien sûr.

conio.JPG

 

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

16/10/2010

Alternative à l'intubation; La coniotomie chirurgicale

Il existe un grand débat concernant les alternatives à l'intubation préhospitalière. Si les dispositifs laryngés apparaissent une alternative du fait de taux d'insertion satisfaisant en particulier le tube KING LT, il n'en demeure toujours pas moins qu'il ne représente toujours pas une solution réelle en conditions de combat du fait de la nécessité de réaliser une anesthésie générale, de l'absence de protection contre le risque d'inhalation, et de limitations importantes en terme de ventilation (pression et déplacement de tube pendant le transport). Ces dispositifs sont par ailleurs relativement volumineux. La recommandation en condition de combat est de privilégier la coniotomie chirurgicale sous AL. 

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Prehosp Emerg Care. 2010 Oct-Dec;14(4):515-30.

A meta-analysis of prehospital airway control techniques part II: alternative airway devices and cricothyrotomy success rates.

Hubble MWWilfong DABrown LHHertelendy ABenner RW.

Emergency Medical Care Program, 122 Moore Building, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA. mhubble@email.wcu.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Airway management is a key component of prehospital care for seriously ill and injured patients. Oral endotracheal intubation (OETI) is the definitive airway of choice in most emergency medical services (EMS) systems. However, OETI may not be an approved skill for some clinicians or may prove problematic in certain patients because of anatomic abnormalities, trauma, or inadequate relaxation. In these situations alternative airways are frequently employed. However, the reported success rates for these devices vary widely, and established benchmarks are lacking.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine pooled estimates of the success rates of alternative airway devices (AADs) and needle cricothyrotomy (NCRIC) and surgical cricothyrotomy (SCRIC) placement through a meta-analysis of the literature.

METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search for all English-language articles reporting success rates for AADs, SCRIC, and NCRIC. Studies of field procedures performed by prehospital personnel from any nation were included. All titles were reviewed independently by two authors using prespecified inclusion criteria. Pooled estimates of success rates for each airway technique were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis model.

RESULTS: Of 2,005 prehospital airway titles identified, 35 unique studies were retained for analysis of AAD success rates, encompassing a total of 10,172 prehospital patients. The success rates for SCRIC and NCRIC were analyzed across an additional 21 studies totaling 512 patients. The pooled estimates (and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for intervention success across all clinicians and patients were as follows: esophageal obturator airway-esophageal gastric tube airway (EOA-EGTA) 92.6% (90.1%-94.5%); pharyngeotracheal lumen airway (PTLA) 82.1% (74.0%-88.0%); esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC) 85.4% (77.3%-91.0%); laryngeal mask airway (LMA) 87.4% (79.0%-92.8%); King Laryngeal Tube airway (King LT) 96.5% (71.2%-99.7%); NCRIC 65.8% (42.3%-83.59%); and SCRIC 90.5% (84.8%-94.2%).

CONCLUSIONS: We provide pooled estimates for prehospital AAD, NCRIC, and SCRIC airway interventions. Of the AADs, the King LT demonstrated the highest insertion success rate (96.5%), although this estimate is based on limited data, and data regarding its ventilatory effectiveness are lacking; more data are available for the ETC and LMA. The ETC, LMA, and PTLA all had similar-but lower-success rates (82.1%-87.4%). NCRIC has a low rate of success (65.8%); SCRIC has a much higher success rate (90.5%) and should be considered the preferred percutaneous rescue airway.

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Pour approfondir (1) (2) (3)

 

| Tags : airway

11/10/2010

Coniotomie: Avec un guide !

La coniotmie ou cricothyrotomie est unetechnique essentielle à maîtriser pour une prise en charge optimale des blessés de la face présentant une obstruction des voies aériennes ( le A du SAFE ABC MARCHE). ICI vous est présenté une technique qu'il faut connaître.

 

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

07/10/2010

Coniotomie: Chirurgie vs percutané ?

Prehospital Emergency Care
Volume 8, Issue 4, October-December 2004, Pages 424-426

 

A laboratory comparison of emergency percutaneous and surgical cricothyrotomy by prehospital personnel

Michelle Fischer Keane MDCorresponding Author Contact InformationE-mail The Corresponding AuthorKathryn H. Brinsfield MD, K. Sophia Dyer MD, Simon Roy MD and Daniel White EMT-P

from the Boston University School of Medicine (MFK, KHB, KSD, SR), Boston Medical Center (MFK, KHB, KSD, SR), and Boston Emergency Medical Services (MFK, KHB, KSD, DW), Boston, Massachusetts.

Received 15 January 2004;  
revised 18 May 2004;  
accepted 21 May 2004.  
Available online 1 October 2004. 

 

Abstract

Objective

To compare the speeds and success rates of placement for percutaneous cricothyrotomy versus surgical or open cricothyrotomy.

Methods

Twenty-two paramedics (mean 9.7 years of experience), with training in both methods, were timed using a pig trachea in a crossover model. An emergency physician performed timing and documentation of success; timing commenced after the equipment was ready and the membrane was identified. Paramedics were randomly assigned by a coin toss to start in either group. All were actively employed by a municipal third-service emergency medical services (EMS) agency. Paramedics who did not complete one of the methods correctly were excluded from speed analysis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a t-test of paired samples, and confidence intervals for matched samples.

Results

Placement of a surgical cricothyrotomy was significantly faster (mean 28 seconds, range 10–78 seconds) than the percutaneous method (mean 123 seconds, range 58–257 seconds) (p < 0.001). Mean difference between the 20 matched percutaneous versus surgical pairs was 93.75 seconds (95% CI 72.3, 115.2). The surgical route had a 100% success rate at obtaining airway control, whereas the percutaneous method had a 90.9% success rate (p = 0.1).

Conclusion

In an animal model, surgical cricothyrotomy appeared to be a preferable method for establishing a definitive airway over the percutaneous method. Further research is required to define the optimal approach in the prehospital setting for the invasive airway.

 

07/12/2008

Au sujet de la coniotomie

| Tags : respiration