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23/09/2014

Stabilisation pelvienne:

Les attelles de type Sam Splint sont INCONTOURNABLES en médecine militaire comme on peut le voir dans une brochure spécifique. Certains proposent de l'utiliser comme base d'une stabilisation pelvienne.

 

20/09/2014

Intubation face à face: Du nouveau ?

Comparison of Sitting Face-to-Face Intubation (Two-Person Technique) with Standard Oral-tracheal Intubation in Novices: A Mannequin Study

J Emerg Med. 2012 Dec;43(6):1188-95

FacetoFace Intubation.jpeg

L'intubation face au patient n'est pas une nouveauté que ce soit en préhospitalier ou au bloc opératoire. Elle est cependant très peu fréquemment mise en oeuvre. Pourtant l'apparition des vidéolaryngoscopes, notamment l'airtraq,  simplifie grandement cette pratique (vidéo ici). Certains s'interrogent sur son emploi plus large. Elle serait plus aisée que la laryngoscopie directe en décubitus dorsal. C'est ce que suggère ce document. Un grand recul est cependant nécessaire. Ce travail a été fait sur mannequin.

BACKGROUND:

Few studies have evaluated the impact of the upright position on the success of oral-tracheal intubation. Yet, for patients with airway difficulties (i.e, active intraoral bleeding or morbidly obese), the upright position may both benefit the patient and facilitate intubation.

OBJECTIVES:

We compared the success rates of subjects performing standard intubation to a modified version of the sitting face-to-face oral-tracheal intubation technique on a simulation model. We also reviewed the possible advantages and limitations of the sitting face-to-face intubationtechnique.

METHODS:

Volunteer medical and paramedical students were given instruction, then tested, performing in random order both standard oral-trachealand two-person sitting face-to-face oral-tracheal intubation on full-bodied mannequins. Observers reviewed video recordings, noting the number of successful intubations and the time to completion of each procedure at 15, 20, and 30 s.

RESULTS:

All of the sitting face-to-face intubations were successful, 53/53 (100%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 93-100%); whereas of the 53 subjects who performed standard intubation, 48 were successful (91%, 95% CI 80-96%). The difference between successful intubations using thestandard vs. sitting face-to-face technique was 9% (95% CI 1.3-9.4%, p=0.025). At times 15 and 20 s, medical student subjects who successfully performed both techniques were less successful at completing the procedure when performing the standard technique as compared to the sittingface-to-face technique (p=0.016). A post-procedural survey found that the majority of subjects preferred the sitting technique.

CONCLUSION:

Subjects were significantly more successful at performing and preferred the sitting face-to-face intubation when compared to standardintubation.

 

 

| Tags : airway

14/09/2014

Plaie de l'abdomen: Comprimez avec le genou !

Abdominal aortic and iIiac artery compression following penetrating trauma: A study of feasibility

Douma et Al. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014 Jun;29(3):299-302

Introduction 

Penetrating junctional trauma is a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Similarly challenging in civilian settings, exsanguination from the vessels of the abdomen, pelvis, and groin can occur in moments. Therefore, iliac artery or abdominal aortic compression has been recommended. Based on prior research, 120 lbs (54 kg) or 140 lbs (63 kg) of compression may be required to occlude these vessels, respectively. Whether most rescuers can generate this amount of compression is unknown.

Objective 

To determine how many people in a convenience sample of 44 health care professionals can compress 120 lbs and 140 lbs.

Methods 

This study simulated aortic and iliac artery compression. Consent was obtained from 44 clinicians (27 female; 17 male) from two large urban hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Participants compressed the abdominal model, which consisted of a medical scale and a 250 ml bag of saline, covered by a folded hospital blanket and placed on the ground. In random order, participants compressed a force they believed maintainable for 20 minutes (“maintainable effort”) and then a maximum force they could maintain for two minutes (“maximum effort”). Compression was also performed with a knee. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the data.

Results 

Compression was directly proportional to the clinician's body weight. Participants compressed a mean of 55% of their body weight with two hands at a maintainable effort, and 69% at a maximum effort. At maintainable manual effort, participants compressed a mean of 86 lbs (39 kg). Sixteen percent could compress over 120 lbs, but none over 140 lbs. At maximum effort, participants compressed a mean of 108 lbs (48 kg). Thirty-four percent could compress greater than 120 lbs and 11% could compress greater than 140 lbs. Using a single knee, participants compressed a mean weight of 80% of their body weight with no difference between maintainable and maximum effort.

Conclusion 

This work suggests that bimanual compression following penetrating junctional trauma is feasible. However, it is difficult, and is not likely achievable or sustainable by a majority of rescuers. Manual compression (used to temporize until device application and operative rescue) requires a large body mass. To maintain 140 lbs of compression (for example during a lengthy transport), participants needed to weigh 255 lbs (115 kg). Alternatively, they needed to weigh 203 lbs (92 kg) to be successful during brief periods. Knee compression may be preferable, especially for lower-weight rescuers.

| Tags : hémorragie

HEA: Peut être un peu de sérénité ?

Hydroxyethyl Starches: A Tale of Two Contexts: The Problem of Knowledge

Weiskopf R. Anesth Analg. 2014 Sep;119(3):509-13.

Un débat moins passionné est en train de se mettre en place au sujet de la toxicité des HES. Le texte proposé en est un exemple. Il propose une relecture pertinente des études 6S, CHEST et surtout CRISTAL qui d'une certaine façon remet en question les deux précédentes. Il nous demande de prendre en compte plusieurs éléments : La diversité des HES, les différences qui peuvent exister entre une administration répétée en réanimation et une administration ponctuelle péri-opératoire. Il s'appuie sur deux écrits publiés dans le même numéro.

Raghunathan K et all. (Intravenous Starches: Is Suspension the Best Solution?) suggèrent que les solutions colloïdes sont à réserver pour les hypovolémies aiguës alors que Irwin et all. (Volume Therapy with Hydroxyethyl Starches: Are We Throwing the Anesthesia Baby Out with the Intensive Care Unit Bathwater?) estiment que le recours aux HES 130/0.4 est pleinement justifié en environnement périopératoire

Cette démarche correspond au positionnement de la SFAR. Rappelons que la position actuelle des instances européennes est la suivante:

"  Les solutions à base d’HEA peuvent être utilisées pour la réanimation des patients avec une hypovolémie causée par une perte aiguë de sang, quand les alternatives comme la perfusion de cristalloïdes seuls sont insuffisantes. Afin de limiter les risques potentiels, les solutions contenant des HEA ne devront pas être utilisées plus de 24 heures et la fonction rénale devra être monitorée après administration des HEA "

 

| Tags : remplissage

06/09/2014

Coniotomie: Comment en situation isolée ?

Optimizing Emergent Surgical Cricothyrotomy for use in Austere Environments.
 
Etre en capacité d'ouvrir le cou en cas d'instruction des voies aériennes est un savoir faire essentiel à la médicalisation de l'avant. Il n'est pas nécessaire de disposer de kit sophistiqué pour cela. une lame de bistouri de 20, un mandrin et une canule/sonde de 6 mm suffisent. C'est ce qu'exprime ce document. 
 
Emergent cricothyrotomy is an infrequently performed procedure used in the direst of circumstances on the most severely injured patients. Austere environments present further unique challenges to effective emergency medical practice. Recently, military trauma registry data were searched for the frequency of cricothyrotomy use and success rates during a 22-month period. These data revealed that cricothyrotomy performed in the most rigorous austere environment (ie, battlefield) had many successes, but also a large number of failed (33%) attempts by medics owing to many factors. Thus, the aim of this review article is to present what is known about cricothyrotomy and apply this knowledge to any austere environment for qualified providers. The National Library of Medicine’s PubMed was used to conduct a thorough search using the terms “prehospital,” “cricothyroidotomy,” “cricothyrotomy,” and “surgical airway.” The findings were further narrowed by applicability to the austere environment. This review presents relevant airway anatomy, incidences, indications, contraindications, procedures, and equipment, including improvised devices, success rates, complications, and training methods. Recommendations are proffered for ways to optimize procedures, equipment, and training for successful application of this emergent skill set in the austere environment.
"

ConioChirAUstere.png

 

Clic sur l'image pour accéder à l'article

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

04/09/2014

Remplissage vasculaire: Evolution majeure du TCCC

Fluid Resuscitation for Hemorrhagic Shock in Tactical Combat Casualty Care
 

L'emploi préhospitalier de la transfusion de globules rouges et de plasma était évoqué de manière anecdotique. Une évolution importante survient dans la procédure américaine du TCCC (1, 2). Cette pratique est en passe de devenir une recommandation protocolée de théâtre pour les blessés en état de choc (Pas de pouls radial et conscience altérée el l'absence de traumatisme crânien)  hémorragique avec notons le recours au Plyo du CTSA.

" Tactical Field Care and TACEVAC Care

7. Fluid resuscitation

a. The resuscitation fluids of choice for casualties in hemorrhagic shock, listed from most to least preferred, are: whole blood*; plasma, RBCs and platelets in 1:1:1 ratio*; plasma and RBCs in 1:1 ratio; plasma or RBCs alone; Hextend; and crystalloid (Lactated Ringers or Plasma-Lyte A).

b. Assess for hemorrhagic shock (altered mental status in the absence of brain injury and/or weak or absent radial pulse).

1. If not in shock:

- No IV fluids are immediately necessary.

- Fluids by mouth are permissible if the casualty is conscious and can swallow.

2. If in shock and blood products are available under an approved command or theater blood product administration protocol:

- Resuscitate with whole blood*, or, if not available

- Plasma, RBCs and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio*, or, if not available

- Plasma and RBCs in 1:1 ratio, or, if not available;

- Reconstituted dried plasma, liquid plasma or thawed plasma alone or RBCs alone;

- Reassess the casualty after each unit. Continue resuscitation until a palpable radial pulse, improved mental status or systolic BP of 80-90 mmHg is present.

3. If in shock and blood products are not available under an approved command or theater blood product administration protocol due to tactical or logistical constraints:

- Resuscitate with Hextend, or if not available;

- Lactated Ringers or Plasma-Lyte A;

- Reassess the casualty after each 500 mL IV bolus;

- Continue resuscitation until a palpable radial pulse, improved mental status, or systolic BP of 80-90 mmHg is present.

- Discontinue fluid administration when one or more of the

above end points has been achieved.

4. If a casualty with an altered mental status due to suspected TBI has a weak or absent peripheral pulse, resuscitate as necessary to restore and maintain a normal radial pulse. If BP monitoring is available, maintain a target systolic BP of at least 90 mmHg.

5. Reassess the casualty frequently to check for recurrence of shock. If shock recurs, recheck all external hemorrhage control measures to ensure that they are still effective and repeat the fluid resuscitation as outlined above.

* Neither whole blood nor apheresis platelets as these products are currently collected in theater are FDA-compliant. Consequently, whole blood and 1:1:1 resuscitation using apheresis platelets should be used only if all of the FDA-compliant blood products needed to support 1:1:1 resuscitation are not avalaible

03/09/2014

Ne comprimez pas les yeux

The use of rigid eye shields (Fox shields) at the point of injury for ocular trauma in Afghanistan

Mazolli RA et Al. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014;77: S156-S162 

BACKGROUND:
Unlike hemorrhagic injuries in which direct pressure is indicated, any pressure placed on the eye after penetrating trauma can significantly worsen the injury by expulsing intraocular contents. The accepted first response measure for obvious or suspected penetrating ocular injury is placement of a rigid shield that vaults the eye so as to prevent accidental iatrogenic aggravation during transport to the ophthalmologist. Patching and placing intervening gauze between the shield and the eye are both contraindicated.
ocularTrauma.png
Anecdotally, compliance with these recommendations is poor in the military and civilian communities alike; however, published studies documenting compliance are uniformly lacking. This study was undertaken to provide such an evaluation.

 METHODS:

In this retrospective observational study, the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was reviewed to identify eye injuries in Afghanistan from 2010 to 2012 and to examine compliance with eye shield recommendations. One hundred fifty-seven records of eye casualties were identified and categorized according to diagnostic codes, noting use of a shield. A subset of 30 records was further analyzed for compliance with other core treatment measures specified by the operant Clinical Practice Guideline. Because comparative studies do not exist, simple statistical analysis was performed.

 RESULTS:

Overall, 39% of eye injuries received a shield at the point of injury (61% failure), ranging from 0% to 50% between diagnostic subgroups. Subset analysis revealed that only 4.2% of injuries were successfully mitigated at the point of injury (95.8% failure).

 CONCLUSION:

In one of the few studies documenting the use of eye shields after ocular trauma, anecdotal reports of poor, inadequate, or incorrect compliance with basic recommendations were substantiated. Several factors may account for these findings. Corrective efforts should include enhanced educational emphasis and increased shield availability.