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16/04/2021

RSI: Transfusez avant si le blessé saigne +++

Rapid Sequence Induction Strategies Among Critically Injured U.S. Military During the Afghanistan and Iraq Conflicts
Emerling Alec D et Al. Mil Med. 2021 Jan 25;186(Suppl 1):316-323. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usaa356.

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Pour une meilleure stabilité hémodynamique des blessés graves, peu importe l'agent si l est employé à la bonne dose ET SURTOUT transfusez avant l'induction si votre blessé saigne/a saigné.

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Abstract


Introduction: Rapid sequence intubation of patients experiencing traumatic hemorrhage represents a precarious phase of care, which can be marked by hemodynamic instability and pulseless arrest. Military combat trauma guidelines recommend reduced induction dose and early blood product resuscitation. Few studies have evaluated the role of induction dose and preintubation transfusion on hemodynamic outcomes. We compared rates of postintubation systolic blood pressure (SBP) of < 70 mm Hg, > 30% drop in SBP, pulseless arrest, and mortality at 24 hours and 30 days among patients who did and did not receive blood products before intubation and then examined if induction agent and dose influenced the same outcomes.

Materials and methods:

A retrospective analysis was performed of battle-injured personnel presenting to surgical care facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2004 and 2018. Those who received blood transfusions, underwent intubation, and had an Injury Severity Score of ≥15 were included. Intubation for primary head, facial, or neck injury, burns, operative room intubations, or those with cardiopulmonary resuscitation in progress were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression was performed with unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for the five study outcomes among patients who did and did not receive preintubation blood products. The same analysis was performed for patients who received full or excessive versus partial induction agent dose.

Results:

A total of 153 patients had a mean age of 24.9 (SD 4.5), Injury Severity Score 29.7 (SD 11.2), heart rate 122.8 (SD 24), SBP 108.2 (SD 26.6). Eighty-one (53%) patients received preintubation blood products and had similar characteristics to those who did not receive transfusions. Adjusted multivariate analysis found odds ratios as follows: 30% SBP decrease 9.4 (95% CI 2.3-38.0), SBP < 70 13.0 (95% CI 3.3-51.6), pulseless arrest 18.5 (95% CI 1.2-279.3), 24-hour mortality 3.8 (95% CI 0.7-21.5), and 30-day mortality 1.3 (0.4-4.7). In analysis of induction agent choice and comparison of induction agent dose, no statistically significant benefit was seen.

Conclusion:

Within the context of this historical cohort, the early use of blood products conferred a statistically significant benefit in reducing postintubation hypotension and pulseless arrest among combat trauma victims exposed to traumatic hemorrhage. Induction agent choice and dose did not significantly influence the hemodynamic or mortality outcomes.

| Tags : intubation

27/11/2020

Trauma du larynx: Faites une échographie !

Novel role of focused airway ultrasound in early airway assessment of suspected laryngeal trauma

Background

Upper airway injury secondary to blunt neck trauma can lead to upper airway obstruction and potentially cause a life-threatening condition. The most important aspect in the care of laryngeal trauma is to establish a secure airway. Focused airway ultrasound enables recognition of important upper airway structures, offers early opportunity to identify life-threatening upper airway injury, and allows assessment of the extent of injury. This information that can be obtained rapidly at the bedside has the potential to facilitate rapid intervention.

Case presentation

We report a case series that illustrate the diagnostic value of focused airway ultrasound in the diagnosis of laryngeal trauma in patients presenting with blunt neck injury.

Conclusion

Early recognition, appropriate triaging, accurate airway evaluation, and prompt management of such injuries are essential. In this case series, we introduce the potential role of focused airway ultrasound in suspected laryngeal trauma, and the correlation of these exam findings with that of computed tomography (CT) scanning, based on the Schaefer classification of laryngeal injury.

06/01/2020

Intuber avec un robot ?

Automated tracheal intubation in an airway manikin using a robotic endoscope: a proof of concept study.

Biro P et Al. Anaesthesia. 2020 Jan 3. doi: 10.1111/anae.14945. [Epub ahead of print]
 
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L'idée n'est pas nouvelle et plusieurs prototypes ont été utilisés: le KIS ( Kepler Intubation System, 1, 2), le Remote Robot-Assisted Intubation System (RRAIS, 3). L'idée globale est de permettre la réalisation de ce geste par des personnels relativement peu expérimentés.  C'est déjà le cas avec les vidéolaryngoscopes, qui améliorent la vision du plan glottique sans assurer cependant l'insertion trachéale de la sonde. Si ces travaux sont encourageants, il faut cependant admettre que du chemin reste à parcourir. Ainsi ce travail porte non pas sur l'insertion d'une sonde dans la trachée mais sur les phases qui précèdent ce qui constitue l'objectif final d'une intubation. 

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Robotic endoscope-automated via laryngeal imaging for tracheal intubation (REALTI) has been developed to enable automated tracheal intubation. This proof-of-concept study using a convenience sample of participants, comprised of trained anaesthetists and lay participants with no medical training, assessed the performance of a robotic device for the insertion of a tracheal tube into a manikin. A prototype robotic endoscope device was inserted into the trachea of an airway manikin by seven anaesthetists and seven participants with no medical training. Each individual performed six device insertions into the trachea in manual mode and six in automated mode. The anaesthetists succeeded with 40/42 (95%) manual insertions (median (IQR [range]) 17 (12-26 [4-132]) s) and 40/42 (95%) automated insertions (15 (13-18 [7-25]) s). The non-trained participants succeeded in 41/42 (98%) manual insertions (median (IQR [range]) 18 (13-21 [8-133]) s) and 42/42 (100%) automated insertions (16 (13-23 [10-58])] s). The duration of insertion did not differ between groups. An effect of increasing experience was observed in both groups in manual mode. A Likert scale for 'ease of use' (0 = very difficult to 10 = very easy) showed similar results within the two groups; the mean (SD) was 5.9 (2.1) for the anaesthetists and 6.9 (1.3) for the non-trained participants. We have successfully performed the first automated tracheal device insertion in a manikin with comparable results in a convenience sample of anaesthetists and lay participants with no medical training.

20/11/2019

Reco Intubation vigile chez l'adulte

ATI.jpg

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18/07/2019

ISR chez le traumatisé: Etomidate toujours pas convaincant

Pre-hospital emergent intubation in trauma patients: the influence of etomidate on mortality, morbidity and healthcare resource utilization.

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Cette publication revient sur le débat qui porte sur l'emploi de l'étomidate pour l'intubation préhospitalière. Son emploi est remis en cause par certains, notamment à cause de ses effets dépresseurs cortico-surrénaliens tout particulièrement en cas de sepsis. Les auteurs,  si ils ne rapportent pas d'effets délétères sur la mortalité, mettent en évidence une durée d'hospitalisation et de ventialtion plus longue dans le groupe ETO. Plusieurs informations méritent une lecture critique de ce travail. Le premier est la présence dans le groupe non-ETO de thiopental, responsable de nombreux décès lors de l'attaque de pearl harbour (1). La seconde est l'augmentation significative de défaillance cardio-vasculaire dan le groupe non-ETO. On peut se poser la question de l'impact du thiopental dans ce groupe. Le propofol peut également être à l'origine d'une instabilité hémodynamique et nécessite un vrai apprentissage. La quatrième réflexion porte sur le niveau de qualification, qui n'est pas précisé, des personnels réalisant ces intubations.

Ce document ne permet pa de remettre en question la recommandation d'emploi de la Kétamine pour l'ISR dans le cadre de la mise en condition de survie du blessé de guerre (2).

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 BACKGROUND:

Due to its favorable hemodynamic characteristics and by providing good intubation conditions etomidate is often used for induction of general anesthesia in trauma patients. It has been linked to temporary adrenal cortical dysfunction. The clinical relevance of this finding after a single-dose is still lacking appropriate evidence.

METHODS:

This retrospective multi-centre study is based on merged data from a German Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) database and a large trauma patient registry. All trauma patients who were intubated prior to hospital admission with a documented Injury Severity Score ≥ 9 between 2008 and 2012 were eligible for analysis. The primary endpoint was hospital mortality. Other outcome measures were organ failures, sepsis, length of ventilation, as well as length of stay in hospital and ICU.

RESULTS:

One thousand six hundred ninety seven patients were enrolled into the study. Seven hundred sixty two patients received etomidate and 935 patients received other induction agents. The in-hospital mortality was similar in both groups (18.9% versus 18.2%; p = 0.71). Incidences of organ failures and sepsis were not increased in the etomidate group. However, health care resource utilization parameters were prolonged (after adjusting: + 1.3 days for ICU length of stay, p = 0.062; + 0.8 days for length of ventilation, p = 0.15; + 2,7 days for hospital length of stay, p = 0.034). A multivariable logistic regression analysis did not identify etomidate as an independent predictor of hospital mortality (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.77-1.57; p = 0.60).

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the largest trial investigating outcome data for trauma patients who had received a single-dose of etomidate for induction of anesthesia. The use of etomidate did not affect mortality. The influence on morbidity and health care resource utilization remains unclear.

| Tags : etomidate, intubation

25/04/2019

Anesthésie PréHosp: Recos scandinave

BestPractice.jpeg

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| Tags : airway

05/04/2019

ISR: Ket/Celo SANS autre chose

Does the addition of fentanyl to ketamine improve haemodynamics, intubating conditions or mortality in emergency department intubation: A systematic review

27/03/2019

Management of tracheal intubation in critically ill adults

 

BJA Guidelines intubation critically ill.jpg

Clic sur l'image pour accéder au document

| Tags : airway

09/10/2018

Voies aériennes et choc hémorragique, que faire ?

Airway and ventilation management strategies for hemorrhagic shock. To tube, or not to tube, that is the question!

Hudson  AJ et Al. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jun;84(6S Suppl 1):S77-S82

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Primum non nocere. Souvent ne pas faire parce que c'est le plus prudent ET NON PAS PARCE QU'ON N'A PAS APPRIS ET QU'ON NE SAIT DONC PAS FAIRE.

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Many standard trauma management guidelines advocate the early use of endotracheal intubation (ETI) and positive pressure ventilation as key treatment interventions in hemorrhagic shock. The evidence for using these airway and ventilation strategies to manage a circulation problem is unclear. The potentially harmful effects of drug-assisted intubation and positive pressure ventilation include reduced cardiac output, apnea, hypoxia, hypocapnea (due to inadvertent hyperventilation), and unnecessarily prolonged on-scene times. Conversely, the beneficial effects of spontaneous negative pressure ventilation on cardiac output are well described. Few studies, however, have attempted to explore the potential advantages of a strategy of delayed intubation and ventilation (together with a policy of aggressive volume replacement) in shocked trauma patients. Given the lack of evidence, the decision making around how, when, and where to subject shocked trauma patients to intubation and positive pressure ventilation remains complex. If providers choose to delay intubation, they must have the appropriate skills to safely manage the airway and recognize the need for subsequent intervention. If they decide to perform intubation and positive pressure ventilation, they must understand the potential risks and how best to minimize them. We suggest that for patients with hemorrhagic shock who do not have a compromised airway and who are able to maintain adequate oxygen saturation (or mentation if monitoring is unreliable), a strategy of delayed intubation should be strongly encouraged.

| Tags : choc

30/09/2018

US: Mieux que la main pour la conio

A multicentre prospective cohort study of the accuracy of conventional landmark technique for cricoid localisation using ultrasound scanning

 

Cricoid pressure is employed during rapid sequence induction to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. Correct application of cricoid pressure depends on knowledge of neck anatomy and precise identification of surface landmarks. Inaccurate localisation of the cricoid cartilage during rapid sequence induction risks incomplete oesophageal occlusion, with potential for pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. It may also compromise the laryngeal view for the anaesthetist. Accurate localisation of the cricoid cartilage therefore has relevance for the safe conduct of rapid sequence induction.

We conducted a multicentre, prospective cohort study to determine the accuracy of cricoid cartilage identification in 100 patients. The cranio‐caudal midpoint of the cricoid cartilage was identified by a qualified anaesthetic assistant using the conventional landmark technique and marked. While maintaining the patient in the same position, a second mark was made by identifying the midpoint of the cricoid cartilage using ultrasound scanning.

The mean (SD) distance between the two marks was 2.07 (8.49) mm. In 41% of patients the midpoint was incorrectly identified by a margin greater than 5 mm. This error was uniformly distributed both above and below the midpoint of the cricoid cartilage. The Pearson correlation coefficient of this error with respect to body mass index was 0.062 (p = 0.539) and with age was −0.020 (p = 0.843). There were also no significant differences in error between male and female patients.

Identification of cricoid position using a landmark technique has a high degree of variability and has little correlation with age, sex or body mass index. These findings have significant implications for the safe application of cricoid pressure in the context of rapid sequence induction.

| Tags : airway, coniotomie

23/09/2018

ISR par des non médecins: Oui possible

Prehospital Rapid Sequence Intubation by Intensive Care Flight Paramedics.

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Vaste débat. En France une intubation ne peut être réalisé que par un médecin ou un IADE. Ce n'est pas le cas dans d'autres pays, notamment anglo-saxonss mais pas que, où ce geste est pratiqué également par des techniciens paramédicaux spécifiquement formés notamment les paramedics. On rappelle que sous ce terme se cache des techniciens dont la formation centrée sur l'urgence dure près de 3 ans. Ce travail montre que, dans un environnement de traumatologie,  sous réserve d'une formation adaptée, d'une pratique régulière et l'application de protocole un très haut succés est atteint. Il vient en appui des analyses faites dans ces documents (1, 2)
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OBJECTIVE:

Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is an advanced airway procedure for critically ill or injured patients. Paramedic-performed RSI in the prehospital setting remains controversial, as unsuccessful or poorly conducted RSI is known to result in significant complications. In Victoria, intensive care flight paramedics (ICFPs) have a broad scope of practice including RSI in both the adult and pediatric population. We sought to describe the success rates and characteristics of patients undergoing RSI by ICFPs in Victoria, Australia.

METHODS:

A retrospective data review was conducted of adult (≥ 16 years) patients who underwent RSI by an ICFP between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2016. Data were sourced from the Ambulance Victoria data warehouse.

RESULTS:

A total of 795 cases were included in analyses, with a mean age of 45 (standard deviation = 19.6) years. The majority of cases involved trauma (71.7%), and most patients were male (70.1%). Neurological pathologies were the most common clinical indication for RSI (68.3%). The first pass success rate of intubation was 89.4%, and the overall success rate was 99.4%. Of the 5 failed intubations (0.6%), all patients were safely returned to spontaneous respiration. Two patients were returned via bag/valve/mask (BVM) support alone, two with BVM and oropharyngeal airway, and one via supraglottic airway. No surgical airways were required. Overall, we observed transient cases of hypotension (5.2%), hypoxemia (1.3%), or both (0.1%) in 6.6% of cases during the RSI procedure.

CONCLUSION:

A very high RSI procedural success rate was observed across the study period. This supports the growing recognition that appropriately trained paramedics can perform RSI safely in the prehospital environment.

| Tags : airway

22/09/2018

Echo pour l'intubation

Integration of Point-of-care Ultrasound during Rapid Sequence Intubation in Trauma Resuscitation.

Mishra PR et Al. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2018 Apr-Jun;11(2):92-97

Introduction:

Airway and breathing management play critical role in trauma resuscitation. Early identification of esophageal intubation and detection of fatal events is critical. Authors studied the utility of integration of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) during different phases of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in trauma resuscitation.

Methods:

It was prospective, randomized single-centered study conducted at the Emergency Department of a level one trauma center. Patients were divided into ultrasonography (USG) and clinical examination (CE) arm. The objectives were to study the utility of POCUS in endotracheal tube placement and confirmations and identification of potentially fatal conditions as tracheal injury, midline vessels, paratracheal hematoma, vocal cord pathology, pneumothorax, and others during RSI. Patient >1 year of age were included. Time taken for procedure, number of incorrect intubations, and pathologies detected were noted. The data were collected in Microsoft Excel spread sheets and analyzed using Stata (version 11.2, Stata Corp, Texas, U. S. A) software.

Results:

One hundred and six patients were recruited. The mean time for primary survey USG versus CE arm was (20 ± 10.01 vs. 18 ± 11.03) seconds. USG detected four pneumothorax, one tracheal injury, and one paratracheal hematoma. The mean procedure time USG versus CE arm was (37.3 ± 21.92 vs. 58 ± 32.04) seconds. Eight esophageal intubations were identified in USG arm by POCUS and two in CE arm by EtCO2 values.

Conclusion:

Integration of POCUS was useful in all three phases of RSI. It identified paratracheal hematoma, tracheal injury, and pneumothorax. It also identified esophageal intubation and confirmed main stem tracheal intubation in less time compared to five-point auscultation and capnography.

| Tags : airway

21/09/2018

Airway Ultrasound

Upper Airway US.jpeg

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| Tags : airway

16/09/2018

Airway, pour être au RDV: S'entraîner

A Continuous Quality Improvement Airway Program Results in Sustained Increases in Intubation Success.

 

INTRODUCTION:

Airway management is a critical skill for air medical providers, including the use of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) medications. Mediocre success rates and a high incidence of complications has challenged air medical providers to improve training and performance improvement efforts to improve clinical performance.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this research was to describe the experience with a novel, integrated advanced airway management program across a large air medical company and explore the impact of the program on improvement in RSI success.

METHODS:

The Helicopter Advanced Resuscitation Training (HeART) program was implemented across 160 bases in 2015. The HeART program includes a novel conceptual framework based on thorough understanding of physiology, critical thinking using a novel algorithm, difficult airway predictive tools, training in the optimal use of specific airway techniques and devices, and integrated performance improvement efforts to address opportunities for improvement. The C-MAC video/direct laryngoscope and high-fidelity human patient simulation laboratories were implemented during the study period. Chi-square test for trend was used to evaluate for improvements in airway management and RSI success (overall intubation success, first-attempt success, first-attempt success without desaturation) over the 25-month study period following HeART implementation.

RESULTS:

A total of 5,132 patients underwent RSI during the study period. Improvements in first-attempt intubation success (85% to 95%, p < 0.01) and first-attempt success without desaturation (84% to 94%, p < 0.01) were observed. Overall intubation success increased from 95% to 99% over the study period, but the trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.311).

Quality Intubation.jpeg

CONCLUSIONS:

An integrated advanced airway management program was successful in improving RSI intubation performance in a large air medical company.

| Tags : airway

01/06/2018

Curare pour intuber: Oui, mais aussi !

Effects of avoidance or use of neuromuscular blocking agents on outcomes in tracheal intubation: a Cochrane systematic review.

 
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Il est communément admis que l'emploi de curares facilite l'intubation et réduit les complications liées à ce geste. C'est bien ce que confirme cette publication. Mais cette dernière conclue également à l'importance de peser le risque bénéfice risque. Dans les conditions extrêmes d'isolement et de prise en charge de trauma maxillo-faciaux/cranien ballistique l'objectif principal doit rester l'oxygénation des blessés/accidentés. Si l'induction en séquence rapide reste la référence, l'éventualité d'une intubation sans curare sous anesthésie locale doit être évoquée en cas de risque d'impossibilité de ventilation manuelle ou spontanée et de difficulté d'intubation. Dans tous les cas il reste nécessaire de pouvoir réaliser un abord chirurgical des voies aériennes.

Lire ici les recommandations de la SFAR: Intubation difficile en anesthésie, en réanimation

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Cohort studies have indicated that avoidance of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) is a risk factor for difficult tracheal intubation. However, the impact of avoiding NMBA on tracheal intubation, possible adverse effects, and postoperative discomfort has not been evaluated in a systematic review of randomised trials. We searched several databases for trials published until January 2017. We included randomised controlled trials comparing the effect of avoiding vs using NMBA. Two independent authors assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The risk of random errors was assessed by trial sequential analysis (TSA). We included 34 trials (3565 participants). In the four trials judged to have low risk of bias, there was an increased risk of difficult tracheal intubation with no use of NMBA [random-effects model, risk ratio (RR) 13.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.19-21.49, P<0.00001, TSA-adjusted CI 1.85-95.04]. The result was confirmed when including all trials, (RR 5.00, 95% CI 3.49-7.15, P<0.00001, TSA-adjusted CI 1.20-20.77). There was a significant risk of upper airway discomfort or injury by avoiding NMBA (RR=1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.74, P=0.008, TSA-adjusted CI 1.00-1.86). None of the trials reported mortality. Avoiding NMBA was significantly associated with difficult laryngoscopy, (RR 2.54, 95% CI 1.53-4.21, P=0.0003, TSA-adjusted CI 0.27-21.75). In a clinical context, one must balance arguments for using NMBA when performing tracheal intubation.

12/03/2018

Voies aériennes: L'expérience US OIF/OEF

 Prehospital Airway Procedures Performed in Trauma Patients by Ground Forces in Afghanistan.
Blackburn MB et Al. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Mar 8. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001866
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Une analyse complète de toutes les procédures de gestion des voies aériennes faites par les US dans les conflits afghan et Irakien. Une donnée à intégrer pour interpréter ces résultats est le fait que les délais d'évacuations très courts impactent forcément le raisonnement. Cette problématique demeure de première importance quand les délais d'évacuation sont long, comme ce qui est observé actuellement dans le sahel ressemblant finalement assez au monde de la médecine ruurale au sens australien.
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BACKGROUND:

Airway management is of critical importance in combat trauma patients. Airway compromise is the second leading cause of potentially survivable death on the battlefield and accounts for approximately 1 in 10 preventable deaths. Reports from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars indicate 4-7% incidence of airway interventions on casualties transported to combat hospitals. The goal of this study was to describe airway management in the prehospital combat setting and document airway devices used on the battlefield.

METHODS:

This study is a retrospective review of casualties that required a prehospital life-saving airway intervention during combat operations in Afghanistan. We obtained data from the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) that was linked to the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) for outcome data for the time period between January 2013 and September 2014.

RESULTS:

705 total trauma patients were included, 16.9% required a prehospital airway management procedure. There were 132 total airway procedures performed, including 83 (63.4%) endotracheal intubations and 26 (19.8%) nasopharyngeal airway placements. Combat medics were involved in 48 (36.4%) of airway cases and medical officers in 73 (55.3%). Most (94.2%) patients underwent airway procedures due to battle injuries caused by explosion or gunshot wounds.

PreHAIrway.jpg

Casualties requiring airway management were more severely injured and less likely to survive as indicated by injury severity score, responsiveness level, Glascow coma score, and outcome.

CONCLUSIONS:

Percentages of airway interventions more than tripled from previous reports from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These changes are significant and further study is needed to determine the causes. Casualties requiring airway interventions sustained more severe injuries and experienced lower survival than patients who did not undergo an airway procedure, findings suggested in previous reports.

11/02/2018

Airway: Prévention des complications

Capture d’écran_2018-02-11_00-03-36.jpg

Clic sur 'image pour accéder au document

| Tags : airway

17/01/2018

Histoire de mandrin

Il n'est parfois pas simple de bien maintenir un mandrin d'intubation dans le bon axe. Vous sont proposé en 3,4 et 5 plusieurs manières de s'en sortir.

 

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17/12/2017

Réfllexions sur la balance Airway/complications

Strategies for the prevention of airway complications - a narrative review.

 
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Le document rapporté est une lecture critique de la littérature sur un sujet de premier plan. La démarche dépasse celle d'un anesthésiste-réanimateur pour être centrée sur la prévention des complications liées à la gestion de l'airway.
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Despite being infrequent, complications of airway management remain an important contributor to morbidity and mortality during anaesthesia and care of the critically ill. Developments in the last three decades have made anaesthesia safer, and this has been mirrored in the equipment and techniques available for airway management. Modern technology including novel oxygenation modalities, widespread availability of capnography, second-generation supraglottic airway devices and videolaryngoscopy provide the tools to make airway management safer still. However, technology will only take safety so far, and non-technical aspects of airway management are critically important for communication and decision making during airway crises, acknowledging a 'cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate' situation and transitioning to emergency front of neck airway. Randomised controlled trials provide little useful information about safety in this setting, and data from registries and databases are likely to be of more value. This narrative review focuses on recent evidence in this area.

15/01/2017

ISR: Plutôt kétamine ?

Significant modification of traditional rapid sequence induction improves safety and effectiveness of pre-hospital trauma anaesthesia.

Lyon RM et Al. Crit Care. 2015 Apr 1;19:134

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Faut-il utiliser la kétamine ou l'étomidate ? Le travail présenté milite pour l'emploi de la kétamine, mais ceci reste controversé (voir également ici)). C'est aussi le choix présenté dans la procédure du sauvetage au combat, du fait de la polyvalence d'emploi de la kétamine tant dans ses indications que de ses voies d'administration. On rappelle quand même que si l'ISR facilite grandement les conditions de l'intubation oro-trachéale en médecine préhospitalière métropolitaine, nos conditions spécifiques d'exercice ne correspondent pas à cette dernière. Avant de réaliser une telle induction, encore faut-il être valider l'indication de l'intubation au milieu de nulle part. Par ailleurs  la réalisation de ce geste sous anesthésie locale doit également être envisagée. Ceci est conforme aux recommandations sur le sujet. 

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INTRODUCTION:

Rapid Sequence Induction of anaesthesia (RSI) is the recommended method to facilitate emergency tracheal intubation in trauma patients. In emergency situations, a simple and standardised RSI protocol may improve the safety and effectiveness of the procedure. A crucial component of developing a standardised protocol is the selection of induction agents. The aim of this study is to compare the safety and effectiveness of a traditional RSI protocol using etomidate and suxamethonium with a modified RSI protocol using fentanyl, ketamine and rocuronium.

METHODS:

We performed a comparative cohort study of major trauma patients undergoing pre-hospital RSI by a physician-led Helicopter Emergency Medical Service. Group 1 underwent RSI using etomidate and suxamethonium and Group 2 underwent RSI using fentanyl, ketamine and rocuronium. Apart from the induction agents, the RSI protocol was identical in both groups. Outcomes measured included laryngoscopy view, intubation success, haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation, and mortality.

RESULTS:

Compared to Group 1 (n = 116), Group 2 RSI (n = 145) produced significantly better laryngoscopy views (p = 0.013) and resulted in significantly higher first-pass intubation success (95% versus 100%; p = 0.007). A hypertensive response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was less frequent following Group 2 RSI (79% versus 37%; p < 0.0001). A hypotensive response was uncommon in both groups (1% versus 6%; p = 0.05). Only one patient in each group developed true hypotension (SBP < 90 mmHg) on induction.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a comparative, cohort study, pre-hospital RSI using fentanyl, ketamine and rocuronium produced superior intubating conditions and a more favourable haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. An RSI protocol using fixed ratios of these agents delivers effective pre-hospital trauma anaesthesia.

| Tags : kétamine, airway