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31/08/2017

Tourniquet: Bien en contexte civil AUSSI

The trauma center is too late: Major limb trauma without a pre-hospital tourniquet has increased death from hemorrhagic shock

Scerbo MH et Al. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery,10.1097/TA.0000000000001666

 

Background: To date, no civilian studies have demonstrated that pre-hospital (PH) tourniquets improve survival. We hypothesized that late, trauma center (TC) tourniquet use would increase death from hemorrhagic shock compared to early (PH) placement.

Methods: All patients arriving to a Level-1, urban TC between 10/2008 and 01/2016 with a tourniquet placed prior to (T-PH) or after arrival to the TC (T-TC) were evaluated. Cases were assigned the following designations: indicated [absolute indication (vascular injury requiring repair/ligation, operation within 2 hours for extremity injury, or traumatic amputation), or relative indication (major musculoskeletal/soft-tissue injury requiring operation 2-8 hours after arrival, documented large blood loss)], or non-indicated. Outcomes were death from hemorrhagic shock, physiology upon arrival to the TC and massive transfusion requirements. Following univariate analysis, logistic regression was carried out to assess independent predictors of death from hemorrhagic shock.

Results: 306 patients received 326 tourniquets for injuries to 157 upper and 147 lower extremities. 281 (92%) had an indication for placement. 70% of patients had a blunt mechanism of injury. T-TC patients arrived with a lower systolic blood pressure [101 (86, 123) versus 125 (100, 145)mmHg, p<0.001], received more transfusions in the first hour of arrival (55% versus 34%, p=0.02) and had a greater mortality from hemorrhagic shock (14% vs. 3.0%, p=0.01). When controlling for year of admission, mechanism of injury and shock upon arrival (SBP  ≤90mmHg or HR ≥120 bpm or base deficit ≤ 4), indicated T-TC had a 4.5-fold increased odds of death compared to T-PH [OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.23-16.4, p=0.02)].

Conclusions: Waiting until TC arrival to control hemorrhage with a tourniquet was associated with worsened blood pressure and increased transfusion within the first hour of arrival. In routine civilian trauma patients, delaying to T-TC was associated with 4.5-fold increased odds of mortality from hemorrhagic shock

| Tags : tourniquet

21/07/2017

SOFT-Tourniquet: Du nouveau

Tactical Médical Solutions qui est le fabricant du SOFT-Tourniquet, garrot en dotation dans l'armée française, propose une nouvelle version de son garrot Wide. Sa nouvelle boucle est d'emploi bien plus aisé que la précédente et positionne ce garrot parmi les tous meilleurs(CAT, SOFT-T, TK4,...)

 

productimage-picture-sof-tactical-tourniquet-wide-new-buckle-1502.png

Clic sur l'image pour accéder au site. Le distributeur en France.

| Tags : tourniquet

29/04/2017

Une ceinture pour tourniquet ? Plutôt l'inverse.

Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets: BELT Study Comparing Trouser Supporters Used as Medical Devices in a Manikin Model of Wound Bleeding.

Bequette BW et Al Wilderness Environ Med. 2017 Apr 19. pii: S1080-6032(17)30060-1. 

 

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Une idée, qui n'est pas nouvelle de même que celui de pantalon intégrant un garrot (1),  mais on devrait plutôt dire un tourniquet pour ceinture. Ce travail est par ailleurs intéressant car il aborde la problématique des garrots insuffisamment serrés.

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OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of the present study is to compare several models of commercially designed belts as used as a tourniquet.

METHODS:

In the Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets (BELT) study, an experiment was designed to test the effectiveness of pants belts as non improvised medical devices to control hemorrhage in a manikin. Models of belts included Tourni-belt, Tourniquet Belt, ParaBelt, and Battle Buddy. Data collected included effectiveness, time to stop bleeding, total time of application, pressure, blood loss, and composite results (score count of good results; composite outcome good if every component was good).

RESULTS:

Differences in effectiveness percentages among models were not statistically significant. The difference in mean between users was statistically significant for stop time, total time, pressure, blood loss, composite score, and composite outcome. Mean time to stop bleeding differed for only 1 pair of models after the Tukey-Kramer adjustment; ParaBelt was faster than Tourniquet Belt. Mean total time of application differed between ParaBelt-Tourniquet Belt and Tourni-belt-Tourniquet Belt; the former model in both pairs was faster. No significant difference in mean blood loss measured by model was found. For composite outcome score, no pairwise difference between models was significant. For composite outcome (good-bad), ParaBelt had good results in 75% of tests; the other 3 models had significantly worse results.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a preliminary laboratory analysis of belt tourniquet models using a manikin, performance differed by model. ParaBelt performed better than other models for the composite outcome.our tourniquet ?

| Tags : tourniquet

11/04/2017

Tourniquet: Les israéliens, pour +++

Point of injury tourniquet application during Operation Protective Edge - what do we learn?

 
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Un point récent sur l'emploi du garrot dans un contexte de combat mixte zone urbaine mais aussi hors de la ville. Disons immédiatement que ce travaille CONFIRME l'intérêt du garrot, qui doit pouvoir être rapidement converti. Le contexte de pose du garrot est  avant tout tactique (exposition au feu, plusieurs blessés, nuit complète). L' efficacité du premier garrot est de 70%. Près d'1/4 nécessitent au moins 2 garrots et encore 1/4 sont convertis pendant la medevac. Sur 13% des blessés sont réalisés des gestes de sauvetage: décompression thoracique /Intubation ou Cricothyrotomie. Ce document exprime parfaitement l'importance de la maîtrise et partant de l'entraînement à la réalisation des gestes de la procédure du sauvetage au combat.
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BACKGROUND:

Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Timely tourniquet application to massively bleeding extremity wounds is critical for casualty survival albeit with reported adverse effects to extremity integrity. The aim of this study was to describe the immediate and short term outcomes of point of injury (POI) tourniquet applications during 'Operation Protective Edge' (OPE).

METHODS:

A case series study regarding tourniquet application at the POI during OPE was collected. The data gathered included reports by medical providers at the POI, aerial and land evacuation vehicles, and receiving hospitals. Variables collected included, the number of tourniquet applications, caregiver level, tourniquet type, limb characters, tourniquet effectiveness, in-hospital procedures, complications and short term limb outcome.

RESULTS:

During OPE, the Israeli Defense Forces Medical Corps (IDF-MC) treated 704 casualties. Out of these, 90 casualties were treated with 119 tourniquets out of which 79 survived. Penetrating trauma was the mechanism of injury in 97.8% (88/90) of the casualties. Injuries sustained from Improvised explosive devices (IED) and shrapnel were related to the use of more than one tourniquet per casualty and per limb (p=0.034). The success rate of the first tourniquet was reported to be 70% (84/119), regardless of caregiver level (P=0.56), tourniquet type (P=0.16) or limb characters (p=0.48).  two of the conversions failed and thus a new tourniquet was applied. Fasciotomy was performed on 8 casualties (a single limb in each). Vascular injury was presumed to be the indication for fasciotomy in three of these cases, in the other five limbs (6%, 5/85) no vascular involvement was discovered during surgery and the fasciotomy is suspected as tourniquet related. 7%) 6/85) suffered from neurological sequela that could not be explained by their primary injury. Total complication rate was 11.7% (10/85) (one patient had both fasciotomy and neural complication without vascular injury)

CONCLUSION:

Tourniquet use on the battlefield is a simple method of eliminating preventable death, we believe that clinical practice guidelines should promote liberal use of tourniquets by trained combatants and medical personnel with abilities to convert to direct pressure hemorrhage control when possible since an unjustified tourniquet application risks low rates minor morbidity whereas a justifiable tourniquet not applied may be lethal.

| Tags : tourniquet

17/03/2017

Tourniquet: La nouveauté de SamMedical

SAM Tourniquet XT

Un garrot, dont l'intérêt apparaît être d'une part sur sa largeur et d'autre part sur sa boucle de serrage innovante. 

lookbook-1.jpg

 Clic sur l'image pour accéder à une vidéo

| Tags : tourniquet

14/03/2017

Tourniquet: Attention

Cat on a Hot Tin Roof: Mechanical Testing of Models of Tourniquets After Environmental Exposure.
O'Conor DK et Al.  J Spec Oper Med. 2017 Spring;17(1):27-35.

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La pose d'un garrot est essentiel à la survie d'un blessé présentant une hémorragie sévère des membres. Encore faut-il qu'il soit de bonne qualité. Les autorités sanitaires américaines insistent sur l'importance de ne se fournir qu'auprès de distributeurs connues distribuant des garrots éprouvés plutôt que de céder aux sirènes de la copie chinoise de basse qualité. En effet même ces garrots  voient leur efficacité réduite après exposition aux conditions de combat. C'est ce que met une fois de plus en évidence ce travail.

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BACKGROUND:

The purpose of the present study was to mechanically assess models of emergency tourniquet after 18 months of environmental exposure to weather to better understand risk of component damage.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

An experiment was designed to test tourniquet performance on a manikin thigh. Three tourniquet models were assessed: Special Operations Forces Tactical Tourniquet Wide, Ratcheting Medical Tourniquet, and Combat Application Tourniquet. Unexposed tourniquets formed a control group stored in a laboratory; exposed tourniquets were placed outdoors on a metal roof for 18 months in San Antonio, Texas. Two users, a military cadet and a scientist, made 300 assessments in total. Assessment included major damage (yes-no), effectiveness (hemorrhage control, yes-no), casualty survival (alive-dead), time to stop bleeding, pressure, and blood loss. Time, pressure, and blood loss were reported in tests with effectiveness.

RESULTS:

Exposed devices had worse results than unexposed devices for major damage (3% [4/150] versus 0% [0/150]; &rho; = .018), effectiveness (89% versus 99%; &rho; = .002), and survival of casualties (89% versus 100%; &rho; &lt; .001). In tests for effectiveness, exposed devices had worse results than unexposed devices for time to stop bleeding (29 seconds versus 26 seconds; &rho; = .01) and pressure (200mmHg versus 204mmHg; &rho; = .03, respectively), but blood loss volume did not differ significantly.

CONCLUSION:

Compared with unexposed control devices, environmentally exposed tourniquets had worse results in tests of component damage, effectiveness, and casualty survival.

| Tags : tourniquet

16/02/2017

TMT tourniquet: Un nouveau venu

Un nouveau venu qui fait aussi bien que la référence US, à savoir le CAT, sans apporter plus (1). Ne pas confondre ce garrot dont le distributeur est connu et dont la fabrication parfaitement tracée. Sans aucune comparaison avec nombre de copies qui ne bénéficient pas des mêmes contrôle de qualité distribués à moins de 10 Euros et qui peuvent faire illusion.

1489769572INTMT2.jpg

| Tags : tourniquet

08/02/2017

Tourniquets contrefaits = DANGER

DANGER

 

Les événements récents ont mis en avant l'importance de l'application précoce de garrot. L'approvisionnement en garrot est un véritable challenge et un marché où la guerre commerciale fait maintenant rage. Si le nombre de fabricants historiques de garrot était relativement restreint  (CAT, SOFT-T, TK4, RATS, MAT, SWAT), on voit fleurir nombre de copies essentiellement chinoises dont il est relativement aisé de se procurer des exemplaires, notamment sur le marché de l'AIRSOFT. Deux fabricants sont particulièrement la cible de ces contrefacteurs CAT ressources et TACMED solutions, car ce sont les deux garrots validés par les US dans le cadre du TCCC. Ces deux fabricants diffusent leurs produits pour une 20aines d'euros. Le garrot en service dans l'armée française depuis une dizaine d'année est le SOFT-T de la société TACMED, garrot dont il existe une version adaptée pour l'enfant. Les contrefacteurs chinois affichent des tarifs parfois 10 fois moindres. Les produits proposés par ces sociétés ne peuvent pas disposer des qualités techniques de même niveau que ceux détenus par les originaux. Un aspect important des garrots est leur résistance au vieillissement, aux intempéries, au froid, aux UV. Il a été démontré que ces caractéristiques sont très importantes en terme d'efficacité après quelques mois de port du garrot en ambiance opérationnelle vraie. Il serait étonnant que ces copies de garrot, dont les matières premières et les circuits de fabrication sont pour le moins opaques offrent les mêmes garanties de sécurité que ceux de fabricants historiques maîtrisant tous les process de fabrication de leur production.

Par ailleurs il semblerait que les conditions des certifications CE et ISO 134 (1,2,3)85 soit sujettes à caution car en partie relevant d'une autocertification.

Les autorités américaines ne sont saisies de ce problème et rappellent l'importance de ne s'approvisionner que chez les forunisseurs des garrots validés dans le T3C, à savoir les garrots produits apr CAT ressources et TacMed Solutions en excluant toute autre production au prétexte de tarifs à première vue (tro) alléchants. Lire le rapport de la FDA

Je vous propose dans le lien suivant quelques exemples concernant le garrot SOFT-T

Matériel Tourniquet Contrefaçons.pdf

Certains modèles de tourniquet s'inspirent très fortement de ces produits et en particulier du SOF-T (notamment le wide) mais avec une démarche d' innovation réelle. Aussi ces tourniquets sont ils différents de simples copies et très probablement de bonne qualité. Ils ne sont pas produits en chine mais dans des pays de l'Est européen, voire en Russie (a,b). On manque néanmoins de recul d'expertise technique de ces derniers. 

Dans l'état actuel des choses, à moins de s'équiper pour de l'airsoft, la prudence est de rester à l'écart des ces garrots et de continuer à utiliser les produits distribués par les fournisseurs reconnus des fabricants historiques (4, 5,6)

| Tags : tourniquet

11/11/2016

15 ans d'emploi du tourniquet: Que dire ?

Battlefield Tourniquets: Lessons Learned in Moving Current Care Toward Best Care in an Army Medical Department at War

Kragh JF Jr et Al. US Army Med Dep J. 2016 Apr-Sep;(2-16):29-36.

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Un point d'étape qui insiste sans surprise sur l'apport d'une pose précoce d'un garrot. Précoce mais aussi rapide:  25 secondes sont nécessaires aux plus entraînés mais c'est 20 secondes de trop. Plus on s'entraîne et plus vite ET mieux on pose ce garrot.  

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Bleeding prevention and control by tourniquet use by out-of-hospital caregivers is a major breakthrough in military medicine of current wars. The present review documents developments in tourniquet practices since 2001 among the US military services for aid in improving doctrine, policy, and especially care in wars to come. Tourniquets are an adjunct for resuscitation in self-care and buddy aid and today are issued to all military service persons who deploy into a combat zone. In the US Army, virtually every Soldier is trained in first aid tourniquet use; since 2009 they are instructed early and often to use them early and often. Despite substantial knowledge gains among the services in tourniquet use and resulting improvements in casualty survival, current evidence shows persistent diffi culties in achieving best care with tourniquet use for individual trauma patients. Nevertheless, contemporary tourniquet use incorporates key lessons learned over the last 14 years of war that include: (1) tourniquet use reliably stops bleeding from limb wounds and prevents mortality in prehospital settings; and (2) brief tourniquet use appears to be safe. These 2 lessons have become so evident that civilian emergency medical systems have begun using them, albeit unevenly. Collection and interpretation of data of casualties with tourniquet use have showed that such intervention has lifesaving benefit through 2 mechanisms: control of both ongoing hemorrhage and shock severity. The next generation of interventions in bleeding control involves developing the skill sets, education, and standards of tourniquet users which may improve hemorrhage control in wars to come

 

tourniquet

 

 

| Tags : tourniquet

24/09/2016

Tourniquet: Entretien 3/mois mieux qu'1/mois

Does practice make perfect? Prospectively comparing effects of 2 amounts of practice on tourniquet use performance

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L'entretien des compétences et en particulier des gestes apparaît fondamentale et nécessite un suivi chiffré pour garantir un niveau suffisant d'expertise pour une projection opérationnelle. Ceci est parfaitement mis en avant dans le travail de schaeur et Al. (1) qui porte sur des gestes de réanimation préhospitalière. Le document proposé à votre lecture porte sur un geste essentiel: La pose du garrot. Une pratique plus régulière limite le désapprentissage.

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Although a lifesaving skill, currently, there is no consensus for the required amount of practice in tourniquet use. We compared the effect of 2 amounts of practice on performance of tourniquet use by nonmedical personnel.

METHODS:

Israeli military recruits without previous medical training underwent their standard tactical first aid course, and their initial performance in use of the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT; Composite Resources, Rock Hill, SC) was assessed. The educational intervention was to allocate the participants into a monthly tourniquet practice program: either a single-application practice (SAP) group or a triple-application practice (TAP) group. Each group practiced according to its program. After 3 months, the participants' tourniquet use performance was reassessed. Assessments were conducted using the HapMed Leg Tourniquet Trainer (CHI Systems, Fort Washington, PA), a mannequin which measures time and pressure.

RESULTS:

A total of 151 participants dropped out, leaving 87 in the TAP group and 69 in the SAP group. On initial assessment, the TAP group and the SAP group performed similarly. Both groups improved their performance from the initial to the final assessment. The TAP group improved more than the SAP group in mean application time (faster by 18 vs 8 seconds, respectively; P = .023) and in reducing the proportion of participants who were unable to apply any pressure to the mannequin (less by 18% vs 8%, respectively; P = .009).

CONCLUSION:

Three applications per monthly practice session were superior to one. This is the first prospective validation of a tourniquet practice program based on objective measurements.

| Tags : tourniquet

04/09/2016

Garrot: Mais l'occlusion dans le temps ?

Different Width and Tightening System: Emergency Tourniquets on Distal Limb Segments

Wall PL et Al. J Spec Oper Med. 2015 Winter;15(4):28-38
 
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On s'interesse le plus souvent lors de la mise en place d'un tourniquet à son efficacité immédiate. Mais que se passe-t-il dans les minutes qui suivent ? Il est montré et notamment par ce travail que la pression sous le garrot diminue très rapidement. aussi le risque de resaignement est il grand et oblige à recontr^pler l'efficacité du garrot très régulièrement. C'est un des principes du garrot tactique. Ce travail suggère également que cette baisse de pression d'occlusion est moindre avec une bande de compression élastique. ceci milite pour l'adjonction d'une telle bande à peu près systématiquement soit du moins quand une réévaluation s'avère difficile à conduire dans de bonnes conditions. Ceci est connu (1) mais souvent non appliqué; De telles bandes sont représentées par la SWAT tourniquet, des bandes spécifiques, le pansement OALES Modular bandage et depuis peu par un produit très intéressant le Battle Wrap
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BACKGROUND:

Tourniquets are used on distal limb segments. We examined calf and forearm use of four thigh-effective, commercial tourniquetswith different widths and tightening systems: 3.8 cm windlass Combat Application Tourniquet® (CAT, combattourrniquet.com) and Special Operations Forces® Tactical Tourniquet-Wide (SOFTTW, www.tacmedsolutions.com), 3.8 cm ratchet Ratcheting Medical Tourniquet - Pediatric (RMT-P, www.ratchetingbuckles. com), and 10.4 cm elastic Stretch-Wrap-And-Tuck Tourniquet® (SWATT, www.swattourniquet.com).

METHODS:

From Doppler-indicated occlusion, windlass completion was the next securing opportunity; ratchet completion was one additional tooth advance; elastic completion was end tucked under a wrap.

RESULTS:

All applications on the 16 recipients achieved occlusion. Circumferences were calf 38.1±2.5 cm and forearm 25.1±3.0 cm (p<.0001, t-test, mean±SD). Pressures at Occlusion, Completion, and 120-seconds after Completion differed within each design (p<.05, one-way ANOVA; calf: CAT 382±100, 510±108, 424±92 mmHg; SOFTT-W 381±81, 457±103, 407±88 mmHg; RMT-P 295±35, 350±38, 301±30 mmHg; SWATT 212±46, 294±59, 287±57 mmHg; forearm: CAT 301±100, 352±112, 310±98 mmHg; SOFTT-W 321±70, 397±102, 346±91 mmHg; RMT-P 237±48, 284±60, 256±51 mmHg; SWATT 181±34, 308±70, 302±70 mmHg). Comparing designs, pressures at each event differed (p<.05, one-way ANOVA), and the elastic design had the least pressure decrease over time (p<.05, one-way ANOVA). Occlusion losses differed among designs on the calf (p<.05, χ²; calf: CAT 1, SOFTT-W 5, RMT-P 1, SWATT 0; forearm: CAT 0, SOFTT-W 1, RMT-P 2, SWATT 0).

CONCLUSIONS:

All four designs can be effective on distal limb segments, the SWATT doing so with the lowest pressures and least pressure losses over time. The pressure change from Occlusion to Completion varies by tourniquet tightening system and can involve a pressure decrease with the windlass tightening systems. Pressure losses occur in as little as 120 seconds following Completion and so can loss of Occlusion. This is especially true for nonelastic strap tourniquet designs.

| Tags : tourniquet

2 garrots: Côte à côte SVP, mais attention

Pressures Under 3.8cm, 5.1cm, and Side-by-Side 3.8cm-Wide Tourniquets

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Plus un garrot est large et plus efficace il est. parmi les garrots en dotation le Garrot Delfi est le plus performant en terme d'occlusion. Néanmoins son emploi en première intention et hors un vecteur d'évacuation est difficilement envisageable. Aussi l'association de deux garrots apparaît elle très pertinente surtout si ces derniers sont posés côte à côte. Ce n'est pas pour autant une sécurité car en permettant l'obtention d'une pression d'occlusion plus basse, cette méthode expose à une occlusion insuffisante . Cette publication  a par ailleurs comme intérêt de montrer que la pression d'occlusion baisse avec le temps et ce dès les premières minutes. Il est fondamental d'apprécier TRES régulièrement  l'efficacité du garrot. Donc plutôt un garrot large d'emblée mais si l'on doit compléter poser le second à côté du premier. A noter que le garrot utilisé n'est pas en dotation dans l'armées US mais qu'il s'agit d'un des meilleurs garrots de dernière génération.

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BACKGROUND:

Applications of wider tourniquet are expected to occlude arterial flow at lower pressures. We examined pressures under 3.8cm-wide, 5.1cm-wide, and side-by-side-3.8cm-wide nonelastic strap-based tourniquets.

METHODS:

Ratcheting Medical Tourniquets (RMT) were applied mid-thigh and mid-arm for 120 seconds with Doppler-indicated occlusion. The RMTs were a Single Tactical RMT (3.8cm-wide), a Wide RMT (5.1cm-wide), and Paired Tactical RMTs (7.6cm-total width). Tightening completion was measured at one-tooth advance past arterial occlusion, and paired applications involved alternating tourniquet tightening.

RESULTS:

All 96 applications on the 16 recipients reached occlusion. Paired tourniquets had the lowest occlusion pressures (ρ < .05). All pressures are given as median mmHg, minimum-maximum mmHg. Thigh application occlusion pressures were Single 256, 219-299; Wide 259, 203-287; Distal of Pair 222, 183-256; and Proximal of Pair 184, 160-236. Arm application occlusion pressures were Single 230, 189-294; Wide 212, 161-258; Distal of Pair 204, 193-254, and Proximal of Pair 168, 148-227. Pressure increases with the final tooth advance were greater for the 2 teeth/cm Wide than for the 2.5 teeth/cm Tacticals (ρ < .05). Thigh final tooth advance pressure increases were Single 40, 33-49; Wide 51, 37-65; Distal of Pair 13, 1-35; and Proximal of Pair 15, 0-30. Arm final tooth advance pressure increases were Single 49, 41-71; Wide 63, 48-77; Distal of Pair 3, 0-14; and Proximal of Pair 23, 2-35. Pressure decreases occurred under all tourniquets over 120 seconds. Thigh pressure decreases were Single 41, 32-75; Wide 43, 28-62; Distal of Pair 25, 16-37; and Proximal of Pair 22, 15-37. Arm pressure decreases were Single 28, 21-43; Wide 26, 16-36; Distal of Pair 16, 12-35; and Proximal of Pair 12, 5-24. Occlusion losses before 120 seconds occurred predominantly on the thigh and with paired applications (ρ < .05). Occlusion losses occurred in six Paired thigh applications, two Single thigh applications, and one Paired arm application.

CONCLUSIONS:

Side-by-side tourniquets achieve occlusion at lower pressures than single tourniquets. Additionally, pressure decreases undertourniquets over time; so all tourniquet applications require reassessments for continued effectiveness.

| Tags : tourniquet

22/12/2015

Tourniquet: Contrefaçons=Danger

Le regain d'intérêt pour la mise en place de garrot en cas d'hémorragie massive des membres ne doit pas faire oublier deux choses: Avoir appris correctement et utiliser un matériel adhoc.

Concernant ce dernier point apparaissent sur le marché nombre de garrots qui soit n'ont pas été validés soit sont des contrefaçons de ce dernier, soit des garrots proposés dans le cadre d'activité de type Softball.

Plutôt que d'utiliser un garrot de piêtre qualité, il vaut probablement mieux avoir recours à un garrot artisanal dont l'efficacité n'est pas remise en cause sous réserve d'une technique de pose maîtrisée.

On rappelle que les 3 seuls garrots validés par l'armée américaine sont le CAT, le SOFTT  et le Delfi EMT. Les SEULS garrots en service dans l'armée française sont le SOFTT et le Delfi EMT. Ces garrots sont produits par des industriels au terme de travaux de recherche et de démarche d'évolution et de politique qualité aboutis, toutes démarches absentes chez les copieurs et les contrefacteurs.

Tous les autres garrots n'ont pas suivis les mêmes process de développement, ce qui ne permet pas de garantir ni leur efficacité dans le temps, ni leur fiabilité.

Un exemple de copie du SOFTT est ici présenté

rotating-compression-tactical-black-tourniquet-for-hemorrhage.jpg

 

Un point d'alerte majeur aux USA


 

| Tags : tourniquet

18/07/2015

Tourniquet et chaleur extrême ?

Laboratory testing of emergency tourniquets exposed to prolonged heat

Davidson JP et Al. J Spec Oper Med. 2015 Spring;15(1):34-8.

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Il a été démontré que la fiabilité mécanique des tourniquets pouvait être altérée si ces derniers n'étaient pas protégés (1,2,3). Le travail présenté porte sur l'effet de l'exposition prolongée à de hautes températures sur l'efficacité des garrots. Apparemment il n'y aurait pas d'effet propre.

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BACKGROUND: 

Environmental exposure of tourniquets has been associated with component damage rates, but the specific type of environmental exposure, such as heat, is unknown. Emergency-tourniquet damage has been associated with malfunction and loss of hemorrhage control, which may risk loss of life during first aid. The purposes of the study are to determine the damage rate of tourniquets exposed to heat and to compare the rate to that of controls. 

METHODS: 

Three tourniquet models (Combat Application Tourniquet®; SOF® Tactical Tourniquet; Ratcheting Medical Tourniquet®) were tested using a manikin (HapMed Leg Tourniquet Trainer; www.chisystems.com) that simulates extremity hemorrhage. The study group of 15 tourniquets (five devices per model, three models) was exposed to heat (oven at 54.4° C [130° F] for 91 days), and 15 tourniquets similarly constituted the control group (unexposed to heat). Damage, hemorrhage control, distal pulse stoppage, time to effectiveness, pressure (mmHg), and blood loss volumes were measured. 

RESULTS: 

Three tourniquets in both groups had damage not associated with heat exposure (p = 1). Heat exposure was not associated with change in effectiveness rates (p = .32); this lack of association applied to both hemorrhage control and pulse stoppage. When adjusted for the effects of user and model, the comparisons of time to effectiveness and total blood loss were statistically significant (p < .0001), but the comparison of pressure was not (p = .0613). 

CONCLUSION: 

Heat exposure was not associated with tourniquet damage, inability to gain hemorrhage control, or inability to stop the distal pulse. 

| Tags : tourniquet

17/07/2015

Tourniquet: Une histoire de pression pas si simple

Tourniquets and Occlusion: The Pressure of Design

Wall PL et Al. Mil Med. 2013 May;178(5):578-87

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Un travail très intéressant qui exprime bien que l'efficacité d'un garrot nécessite un ensemble de gestes parfaitement réalisés, notamment un serrage suffisant qui doit être vérifié après la pose. Il existe en effet avec les garrots de type tourniquet ou pneumatique une chute plus ou moins importante de la pression d'occlusion donc de perte d'occlusion, ce d'autant qu'un relâchement musculaire peut apparaître réduisant d'autant plus cette pression d'occlusion. Les garrots élastiques n'aurait pas cet inconvénient.

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Abstracts: Nerve injuries result from tourniquet pressure. The objective was to determine arterial occlusion and completion pressures with the 3.8-cm-wide windlass Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) and the 10.4-cm-wide Stretch, Wrap, and Tuck Tourniquet (SWAT-T).

Methods: Sixteen volunteers self-applied and had tourniquets applied to their thighs and arms (CAT and SWAT-T, random order, then blood pressure cuffs).

Results: Occlusion (Doppler signal elimination) pressures were higher than predicted ( p < 0.0001), highest with the CAT ( p < 0.0001), and often lower than completion pressures (completion median, range: CAT 360, 147–745 mm Hg; SWAT-T 290, 136–449 mm Hg; cuff 184, 108–281 mm Hg). Three CAT thigh and 9 CAT arm completion pressures were >500 mm Hg. Pressure decreases and occlusion losses occurred over 1 minute (pressure decrease: CAT 44 ± 33 mm Hg; SWAT-T 6 ± 8 mm Hg; cuff 14 ± 19 mm Hg; p < 0.0001; loss/initially occluded: CAT 17 of 61, SWAT-T 5 of 61, cuff 40 of 64, p < 0.01). CAT pressures before turn did not have a clear relationship with turns to occlusion.

 

LostPressure.jpgConclusions: Limb circumference/ tourniquet width occlusion pressure predictions are not good substitutes for measurements. The wider SWAT-T has lower occlusion and completion pressures than the CAT. Decreases in muscle tension lead to decreases in tourniquet pressure, especially with the nonelastic CAT, which can lead to occlusion loss.

 

| Tags : tourniquet

21/03/2015

Tourniquet: Efficace, uniquement si serré fort

Forward Assessment of 79 Prehospital Battlefield Tourniquet Use in the Current War

King DR et Al. J Spec Oper Med. 2012 Winter;12(4):33-8.

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La pose libérale d'un garrot est présentée comme étant un facteur essentiel de survie des blessés des membres. Encore faut il que ces derniers soient posés de manière correcte. Le document présenté laisse planer un gros doute. En effet il met en évidence qu'un garrot est mis en place 3 fois sur 4 alors qu'il n'y a pas de lésion vasculaire notable et que la plupart des garrots posés ne sont pas suffisamment serrés et sont en fait des garrots veineux. Pire seuls 1/3 des blessés ayant des lésions artérielles se voient appliquer un garrot artériel. C'est dire qu'une attention particulière doit être portée sur l'abolition du pouls artériel distal. Il s'agit là d'un enjeu pédagogique majeur.

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Introduction:

Battlefield tourniquet use can be lifesaving, but most reports are from hospitals with knowledge gaps remaining at the forward surgical team (FST). The quality of tourniquet applications in forward settings remain unknown. The purpose of this case series is to describe observations of tourniquet use at an FST in order to improve clinical performance.

Methods:

War casualties with tourniquet use presenting to an FST in Afghanistan in 2011 were observed. We identified appliers by training, device effectiveness, injury pattern, and clinical opportunities for improvement. Feedback was given to treating medics.

Results:

Tourniquet applications (79) were performed by special operations combat medics (47, 59%), flight medics (17, 22%), combat medics (12, 15%), and general surgeons (3, 4%). Most tourniquets were Combat Application Tourniquets (71/79, 90%). With tourniquets in place upon arrival at the FST, most limbs (83%, 54/65) had palpable distal pulses present; 17% were pulseless (11/65). Of all tourniquets, the use was venous in 83% and arterial in 17%. In total, there were 14 arterial injuries, but only 5 had effective arterial tourniquets applied.

Discussion:

Tourniquets are liberally applied to extremity injuries on the battlefield. 17% were arterial and 83% were venous tourniquets. When ongoing bleeding or distal pulses were appreciated, medics tightened tourniquets under surgeon supervision until distal pulses stopped. Medics were generally surprised at how tight a tourniquet must be to stop arterial flow–convert a venous tourniquet into an arterial tourniquet. Implications for sustainment training should be considered with regard to this life-saving skill.

13/01/2015

Attentats: Importance du garrot

The Initial Response to the Boston Marathon Bombing. Lessons Learned to Prepare for the Next Disaster 

Gates JD et AL. Ann Surg. 2014 Dec;260(6):960-6

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Le concept du garrot tactique est familier aux équipes militaires. L'expérience rapportée montre que ce concept doit également le devenir dans le monde de la médecine préhospitalière. 26 soit près de 10% blessés pris en charge ont fait l'objet d'une pose de garrot. Ainsi en cas d'attentat la pose précoce d'un garrot en cas d'hémorragie des membres est elle une mesure fondamentale de mise en condition de survie.

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OBJECTIVE:

We discuss the strengths of the medical response to the Boston Marathon bombings that led to the excellent outcomes. Potential shortcomings were recognized, and lessons learned will provide a foundation for further improvements applicable to all institutions.

BACKGROUND:

Multiple casualty incidents from natural or man-made incidents remain a constant global threat. Adequate preparation and the appropriate alignment of resources with immediate needs remain the key to optimal outcomes.

METHODS:

A collaborative effort among Boston's trauma centers (2 level I adult, 3 combined level I adult/pediatric, 1 freestanding level I pediatric) examined the details and outcomes of the initial response. Each center entered its respective data into a central database (REDCap), and the data were analyzed to determine various prehospital and early in-hospital clinical and logistical parameters that collectively define the citywide medical response to the terrorist attack.

RESULTS:

A total of 281 people were injured, and 127 patients received care at the participating trauma centers on that day. There were 3 (1%) immediate fatalities at the scene and no in-hospital mortality. A majority of the patients admitted (66.6%) suffered lower extremity soft tissue and bony injuries, and 31 had evidence for exsanguinating hemorrhage, with field tourniquets in place in 26 patients. Of the 75 patients admitted, 54 underwent urgent surgical intervention and 12 (22%) underwent amputation of a lower extremity.

Tourniquet Boston.jpg

CONCLUSIONS:

Adequate preparation, rapid logistical response, short transport times, immediate access to operating rooms, methodical multidisciplinary care delivery, and good fortune contributed to excellent outcomes.

07/12/2014

Tourniquet: Que disent les utilisateurs ?

Le garrot en dotation dans l'armée française est le Special Operation Tactical Tourniquet  (SOFT-T) , concurrent du Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT). Il existe de nombreux travaux qui cherchent à comparer entre eux les divers produits proposés par  l'industrie. Tel garrot semble plus efficace sur des modèles expériemetaux, un autre voit sa barre de torsion se briser, un autre est plus fragile que son concurrent lorsque les conditions de stockage ne sont pas optimales.

tourniquet

Une autre démarche consiste à demander à ceux qui les ont employé en conditions réelles. Une idée est donnée par le tableau qui suit et qui est tiré d'un questionnaire de suivi de mise en oeuvre des équipements du TCCC. Le modèle actuellement en dotation apparaît parfaitement adapté.

Tourniquet Preference User.jpg

Clic sur l'image pour accéder au suivi des équipemens du TCCC

| Tags : tourniquet

Tourniquet: La largeur compte

Tourniquets and Occlusion: The Pressure of Design

Wall PL et AL. Military Medicine, 178, 5:578, 2013

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Cet article est intéressant car il met en évidence que d'autres garrots que les tourniquets du type du CAT sont efficaces en matière d'occlusion notamment ceux basés sur l'emploi de bandes compressives comme le SWAT-T et d'autre part que le niveau de pression d'occlusion observé avec un tourniquet classique peut être associé à un resaignment si l'on observe un relâchement musculaire

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Nerve injuries result from tourniquet pressure. The objective was to determine arterial occlusion and completion pressures with the 3.8-cm-wide windlass Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) and the 10.4-cm-wide Stretch, Wrap, and Tuck Tourniquet (SWAT-T). Methods: Sixteen volunteers self-applied and had tourniquets applied to their thighs and arms (CAT and SWAT-T, random order, then blood pressure cuffs). Results: Occlusion (Doppler signal elimination) pressures were higher than predicted ( p < 0.0001), highest with the CAT ( p < 0.0001), and often lower than completion pressures (completion median, range: CAT 360, 147–745 mm Hg; SWAT-T 290, 136–449 mm Hg; cuff 184, 108–281 mm Hg). Three CAT thigh and 9 CAT arm completion pressures were >500 mm Hg. Pressure decreases and occlusion losses occurred over 1 minute (pressure decrease: CAT 44 ± 33 mm Hg; SWAT-T 6 ± 8 mm Hg; cuff 14 ± 19 mm Hg; p < 0.0001; loss/initially occluded: CAT 17 of 61, SWAT-T 5 of 61, cuff 40 of 64, p < 0.01). CAT pressures before turn did not have a clear relationship with turns to occlusion. Conclusions: Limb circumference/ tourniquet width occlusion pressure predictions are not good substitutes for measurements. The wider SWAT-T has lower occlusion and completion pressures than the CAT. Decreases in muscle tension lead to decreases in tourniquet pressure, especially with the nonelastic CAT, which can lead to occlusion loss

 

| Tags : tourniquet

01/11/2014

Garrot: A partir de quand est on fiable ?

Single versus Double Routing of the Band in the Combat Application Tourniquet.

J Spec Oper Med. 2013 Spring;13(1):34-41.

Le sauvetage au combat met en avant l'importance d'arrêter toute hémorragie le plus tôt possible. Le garrot tient là une place essentielle. Mais à partir de quand l'apprentissage de cette technique peut il être considéré comme optimal. Une réponse est apporté par ce travail: La maîtrise de ce geste semble être obtenue à partir de 30  poses.

Background: Common first aid tourniquets, like the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) of a windlass and band design, can have the band routed through the buckle in three different ways, and recent evidence indicates users may be confused with complex doctrine.

Objective: The purpose of the present study is to measure the differential performance of the three possible routings in order to better understand good tourniquet practice.

Methods: A training manikin was used by two investigators to measure tourniquet effectiveness, time to stop bleeding, and blood loss.

Results: The effectiveness rate was 99.6% (239/240) overall. Results were similar for both single-slit routings (inside vs. outside, p > 0.05). Effectiveness rates (yes-no results for hemorrhage control expressed as a proportion of iterations) were not statistically different between single and double routing. However, the time to stop bleeding and blood loss were statistically different (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: CAT band routing, through the buckle either singly or doubly, affects two key performance criteria: time to stop bleeding and volume of blood lost. Single routing proved to be faster, thereby saving more blood. Learning curves required to optimize user performance varied over 30-fold depending on which variable was selected (e.g., effectiveness vs. blood loss).

 

 

| Tags : tourniquet