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TXA: Peut être pas si évident

Military use of TXA in combat trauma: Does it matter?

Howard JT et Al Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Jun 9. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001613. [Epub ahead of print]


Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been previously reported to have a mortality benefit in civilian and combat-related trauma, and was thus added to the Joint Theater Trauma System Damage Control Resuscitation Clinical Practice Guideline. As part of ongoing system-wide performance improvement, the use of TXA has been closely monitored. The goal was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TXA use in military casualties and provide additional guidance for continued use.


A total of 3,773 casualties were included in this retrospective, observational study of data gathered from a trauma registry. The total sample, along with 3 sub-samples for massive transfusion patients (n=784), propensity-matched sample (n=1,030) and US/NATO military (n=1,262), were assessed for administration of TXA and time from injury to administration of TXA. Outcomes included mortality and occurrence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Multivariable proportional hazards regression models with robust standard error estimates were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for assessment of outcomes while controlling for covariates.


Results of univariate and multivariate analyses of the total sample (HR=0.97; 95%CI 0.62-1.53; p=0.86); massive transfusion sample (HR=0.84; 95%CI 0.46-1.56; p=0.51); propensity-matched sample (HR=0.68; 95%CI 0.27-1.73; p=0.34); and US/NATO military sample (HR=0.76; 95%CI 0.30-1.92; p=0.48) indicate no statistically significant association between TXA use and mortality. Use of TXA was associated with increased risk of PE in the total sample (HR=2.82; 95%CI 2.08-3.81; p<0.001); massive transfusion sample (HR=3.64; 95%CI 1.96-6.78; p=0.003); US/NATO military sample (HR=2.55; 95%CI 1.73-3.69; p=0.002); but not the propensity-matched sample (HR=3.36; 95%CI 0.80-14.10; p=0.10). TXA was also associated with increased risk of DVT in the total sample (HR=2.00; 95%CI 1.21-3.30; p=0.02) and US/NATO military sample (HR=2.18; 95%CI 1.20-3.96; p=0.02).


In the largest study on TXA use in a combat trauma population, TXA was not significantly associated with mortality, due to lack of statistical power. However, our HR estimates for mortality among patients who received TXA are consistent with previous findings from the CRASH2 trial. At the same time, continued scrutiny and surveillance of TXA use in military trauma, specifically for prevention of thromboembolic events, is warranted.

| Tags : transfusion

Tourniquet: Bien en contexte civil AUSSI

The trauma center is too late: Major limb trauma without a pre-hospital tourniquet has increased death from hemorrhagic shock

Scerbo MH et Al. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery,10.1097/TA.0000000000001666


Background: To date, no civilian studies have demonstrated that pre-hospital (PH) tourniquets improve survival. We hypothesized that late, trauma center (TC) tourniquet use would increase death from hemorrhagic shock compared to early (PH) placement.

Methods: All patients arriving to a Level-1, urban TC between 10/2008 and 01/2016 with a tourniquet placed prior to (T-PH) or after arrival to the TC (T-TC) were evaluated. Cases were assigned the following designations: indicated [absolute indication (vascular injury requiring repair/ligation, operation within 2 hours for extremity injury, or traumatic amputation), or relative indication (major musculoskeletal/soft-tissue injury requiring operation 2-8 hours after arrival, documented large blood loss)], or non-indicated. Outcomes were death from hemorrhagic shock, physiology upon arrival to the TC and massive transfusion requirements. Following univariate analysis, logistic regression was carried out to assess independent predictors of death from hemorrhagic shock.

Results: 306 patients received 326 tourniquets for injuries to 157 upper and 147 lower extremities. 281 (92%) had an indication for placement. 70% of patients had a blunt mechanism of injury. T-TC patients arrived with a lower systolic blood pressure [101 (86, 123) versus 125 (100, 145)mmHg, p<0.001], received more transfusions in the first hour of arrival (55% versus 34%, p=0.02) and had a greater mortality from hemorrhagic shock (14% vs. 3.0%, p=0.01). When controlling for year of admission, mechanism of injury and shock upon arrival (SBP  ≤90mmHg or HR ≥120 bpm or base deficit ≤ 4), indicated T-TC had a 4.5-fold increased odds of death compared to T-PH [OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.23-16.4, p=0.02)].

Conclusions: Waiting until TC arrival to control hemorrhage with a tourniquet was associated with worsened blood pressure and increased transfusion within the first hour of arrival. In routine civilian trauma patients, delaying to T-TC was associated with 4.5-fold increased odds of mortality from hemorrhagic shock

| Tags : tourniquet


Un grimé comme assistant pédagogique

Conveying practical clinical skills with the help of teaching associates-a randomised trial with focus on the long term learning retention

Hoefer SH et Al. BMC Med Educ. 2017; 17: 65.



Ensuring that all medical students achieve adequate clinical skills remains a challenge, yet the correct performance of clinical skills is critical for all fields of medicine. This study analyzes the influence of receiving feedback by teaching associates in the context of achieving and maintaining a level of expertise in complex head and skull examination.


All third year students at a German university who completed the obligatory surgical skills lab training and surgical clerkship participated in this study. The students were randomized into two groups.


lessons by an instructor and peer-based practical skills training. Intervention group: training by teaching associates who are examined as simulation patients and provided direct feedback on student performance. Their competency in short- and long-term competence (directly after intervention and at 4 months after the training) of head and skull examination was measured. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Statistics version 19 (IBM, Armonk, USA). Parametric and non-parametric test methods were applied. As a measurement of correlation, Pearson correlations and correlations via Kendall's-Tau-b were calculated and Cohen's d effect size was calculated.


A total of 181 students were included (90 intervention, 91 control). Out of those 181 students 81 agreed to be videotaped (32 in the control group and 49 in the TA group) and examined at time point 1. At both time points, the intervention group performed the examination significantly better (time point 1, p = <.001; time point 2 (rater 1 p = .009, rater 2 p = .015), than the control group. The effect size (Cohens d) was up to 1.422.


The use of teaching associates for teaching complex practical skills is effective for short- and long-term retention. We anticipate the method could be easily translated to nearly every patient-based clinical skill, particularly with regards to a competence-based education of future doctors.