Despite the early uses of tourniquets and haemostatic dressings, blood loss still accounts for the vast majority of preventable deaths on the battlefield. Over the last few years, progress has been made in the management of such injuries, especially with the use of damage control resuscitation concepts. The early application of these procedures, on the field, may constitute the best opportunity to improve survival from combat injury during remote operations.
Currently available literature relating to trauma-induced coagulopathy treatment and far-forward transfusion was identified by searches of electronic databases. The level of evidence and methodology of the research were reviewed for each article. The appropriateness for field utilisation of each medication was then discussed to take into account the characteristics of remote military operations.
In tactical situations, in association with haemostatic procedures (tourniquet, suture, etc), tranexamic acid should be the first medication used according to the current guidelines. The use of fibrinogen concentrate should also be considered for patients in haemorrhagic shock, especially if point-of-care (POC) testing of haemostasis or shock severity is available. If POC evaluation is not available, it seems reasonable to still administer this treatment after clinical assessment, particularly if the evacuation is delayed. In this situation, lyophilised plasma may also be given as a resuscitation fluid while respecting permissive hypotension. Whole blood transfusion in the field deserves special attention.
In addition to the aforementioned treatments, if the field care is prolonged, whole blood transfusion must be considered if it does not delay the evacuation
Forward medevac during Serval and Barkhane operations in Sahel: A registry study.
Une activité particulièrement sensible dont la lecture permet de comprendre toute la complexité de la prise en charge de nos soldats dans un contexte d'élongation majeure. On comprend également tous les enjeux de positionnement d'équipes sanitaires ayant la maîtrise de certaines pratiques avancées de réanimation préhospitalière.
The French army has been deployed in Mali since January 2013 with the Serval Operation and since July 2014 in the Sahel-Saharan Strip (SSS) with the Barkhane Operation where the distances (up to 1100km) can be very long. French Military Medical Service deploys an inclusive chain from the point of injury (POI) to hospital in France. A patient evacuation coordination cell (PECC) has been deployed since February 2013 to organise forward medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) in the area between the POI and three forward surgical units. The purpose of this work was to study the medical evacuation length and duration between the call for Medevac location accidents and forward surgical units (role 2) throughout the five million square kilometers French joint operation area.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Our retrospective study concerns the French patients evacuated by MEDEVAC from February 2013 to July 2016. The PECC register was analysed for patients' characteristics, NATO categorisation of gravity (Alpha, Bravo or Charlie who must be respectively at hospital facility within 90min, 4h or 24h), medical motive for MEDEVAC and the time line of each MEDEVAC (from operational commander request to entrance in role 2).
A total of 1273 French military were evacuated from February to 2013 to July 2016; 533 forward MEDEVAC were analysed. 12,4% were Alpha, 28,1% Bravo, 59,5% Charlie. War-related injury represented 18,2% of MEDEVAC. The median time for Alpha category MEDEVAC patients was 145min [100-251], for Bravo category patients 205min [125-273] and 310min [156-669] for Charlie. The median distance from the point of injury to role 2 was 126km [90-285] for Alpha patients, 290km [120-455] km for Bravo and 290km [105-455] for Charlie.
Patient evacuation in such a large area is a logistic and human challenge. Despite this, Bravo and Charlie patients were evacuated in NATO recommended time frame. However, due to distance, Alpha patients time frame was longer than this recommended by NATO organisation. That's where French doctrine with forward medical teams embedded in the platoons is relevant to mitigate this distance and time frame challenge.
La prévention d'une hypothermie est fondamentale en médecine de l'avant. Mais quel moyen utiliser ? Le travail présenté met en avant la performance de la couverture triple couche, de la ready heat mais aussi celle de l'association Couverture renforcée et Ready heat. Il met aussi en avant le risque de brûlure localisée avec la ready heat et celui de son délai d'action d'une trentaine de minutes.
Les premiers résultats du registre santé des actes de sauvetagae au combat.