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GE: La pile à combustible, l'avenir

PIle à combustible méthanol



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| Tags : énergie


Garrot: Moins de 2h OK mais pb après 4h

Impact of Time and Distance on Outcomes Following Tourniquet Use in Civilian and Military Settings: a Scoping Review

Joarder M et Al.



Background: The last two decades have seen the reintroduction of tourniquets into guidelines for the management of acute limb trauma requiring haemorrhage control. Evidence supporting tourniquet application has demonstrated low complication rates in modern military settings involving rapid evacuation timeframes. It is unclear how these findings translate to patients who have prolonged transport times from injury in rural settings. This scoping review investigates the relationship between time and distance on metabolic complications, limb salvage and mortality following tourniquet use in civilian and military settings.

Methods: A systematic search strategy was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and SafetyLit databases. Study characteristics, setting, mechanism of injury, prehospital time, tourniquet time, distance, limb salvage, metabolic response, mortality, and tourniquet removal details were extracted from eligible studies. Descriptive statistics were recorded, and studies were grouped by ischemia time (< 2 hours, 2-4 hours, or > 4 hours).

Results: The search identified 3103 studies, from which 86 of studies were included in this scoping review. Of 86 studies, 55 studies were primarily civilian environments and 32 were based in military settings. One study included both settings. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury sustained by patients in military settings (72.8% [5968/8200]) followed by penetrating injury (23.5% [1926/8200]). In contrast, in civilian settings penetrating injury was the most common mechanism (47.7% [1633/3426]) followed by blunt injury (36.4% [1246/3426]).

Tourniquet time was reported in 66/86 studies. Tourniquet time over four hours was associated with reduced limb salvage rates (57.1%) and higher mortality rates (7.1%) compared with a tourniquet time of less than two hours. The overall limb salvage and mortality rates were 69.6% and 6.7% respectively. Metabolic outcomes were reported in 28/86 studies with smaller sample sizes and inconsistencies in which parameters were reported.

Conclusion: This scoping review presents literature describing comparatively safe tourniquet application when used for less than two hours duration. However, there is limited research describing prolonged tourniquet application or when used for protracted distances, such that the impact of tourniquet release time on metabolic outcomes and complications remains unclear. Prospective studies utilising the development of an international database to provide this dataset is required.

| Tags : tourniquet

Le drone: Incontournable !

Drones reduce the treatment-free interval in search and rescue operations with telemedical support – A randomized control trial 

Van Veelen MJ et Al.


Un outil sans nul doute à maîtriser à la lumière des événements ukrainiens



Response to medical incidents in mountainous areas is delayed due to the remote and challenging terrain. Drones could assist in a quicker search for patients and can facilitate earlier treatment through delivery of medical equipment. We aim to assess the effects of drone deployment in search and rescue (SAR) operations in challenging terrain. We hypothesize that drones can reduce the search time and treatment-free interval of patients through initiation of telemedicine in a single mission.


In this randomized control trial with a cross-over design two methods of searching for and initiating treatment of a patient were compared. The primary outcome was a comparison of the times for locating a patient through visual contact and starting treatment on-site between the drone assisted intervention arm and the conventional ground rescue control arm. A linear mixed model (LMM) was used to evaluate the effect of using a drone on search and start of treatment times.


Twenty-four SAR missions, performed by six SAR teams each with four team members, were analyzed. The mean time to locate the patient was 14.6 min (95% CI 11.3–17.9) in the drone assisted intervention arm and 20.6 min (95% CI 17.3–23.9) in the control arm. The mean time to start treatment was 15.7 min (95% CI 12.4–19.0) in the drone assisted arm and 22.4 min (95% CI 19.1–25.7) in the control arm ( p < 0.01 for both comparisons).



Drone deployment in SAR operations leads to a reduction in search time and treatment-free interval of patients in challenging terrain, which could improve outcomes in patients suffering from traumatic injuries, the most commonly occurring incident requiring mountain rescue deployment.

| Tags : drone

Mulhouse:Retour sur l'EMR SSA


EMR SSA.jpeg

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Poser un drain thoracique: Le Reactor ?

Comparing a Novel Hand-Held Device for Chest Tube Insertion to the Traditional Open Tube Thoracostomy for Simple Pneumothorax in a Porcine Model
Dilday J. et Al. J Spec Oper Med. 2022 Dec 16;22(4):41-45.


Ce genre de dispositif parait être plutôt adapté à des personnels peu habitué à ce geste et surtout nécessite un équipement supplémentaire 


Background: Tube thoracostomy is the most effective treatment for pneumothorax, and on the battlefield, is lifesaving. In combat, far-forward adoption of open thoracostomy has not been successful. Therefore, the ability to safely and reliably perform chest tube insertion in the far-forward combat theatre would be of significant value. The Reactor is a hand-held device for tube thoracostomy that has been validated for tension pneumothorax compared to needle decompression. Here we investigate whether the Reactor has potential for simple pneumothorax compared to open thoracostomy. Treatment of pneumothorax before tension physiology ensues is critical.

Methods: Simple pneumothoraces were created in 5 in-vivo swine models and confirmed with x-ray. Interventions were randomized to open technique (OT, n = 25) and Reactor (RT, n = 25). Post-procedure radiography was used to confirm tube placement and pneumothorax resolution. Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) was used to evaluate for iatrogenic injuries. 50 chest tubes were placed, with 25 per group.

Results: There were no statistical differences between the groups for insertion time, pneumothorax resolution, or estimated blood loss (p = .91 and .83). Injury rates between groups varied, with 28% (n = 7) in the Reactor group and 8% (n = 2) the control group (p = .06). The most common injury was violation of visceral pleura (10%, n = 5, both groups) and violation of the mediastinum (8%, n = 4, both groups).

Conclusion: The Reactor device was equal compared to open thoracostomy for insertion time, pneumothorax resolution, and injury rates. The device required smaller incisions compared to tube thoracostomy and may be useful adjunct in simple pneumothorax management.


| Tags : pneumothorax


Crico dans le noir: S'éclairer ?

Cric in the Dark: Surgical Cricothyrotomy in Low Light Tactical Environments 

CW Getz et al. J Spec Oper Med. 2022 Dec 16;22(4):50-54


Surgical cricothyrotomy (SC) is a difficult procedure with high failure rates in the battlefield environment. The difficulty of this procedure is compounded in a low-light tactical environment in which white light cannot be used. This study compared the use of red-green (RG) light and red (R) light in the performance of SC in a low-light environment.

Materials and methods:

Tactical Combat Casualty Care-certified navy corpsmen (n = 33) were provided 15 minutes of standardized instruction followed by hands-on practice with the Tactical CricKit and the H&H bougie-assisted Emergency Cricothyrotomy Kit. Participants acclimated to a dark environment for 30 minutes before performing SC on a mannequin with both devices using both R and RG light in a randomized order. Application time, success, participant preference, and participant confidence were analyzed.

Results: There were similarly high levels of successful placement (>87.5%) in all four cohorts. Light choice did not appear to affect placement time with either of the two kits. On Likert-scale surveys, participants reported that RG decreased difficulty (p < .0001) and increased confidence (p < .0001) in performing the procedure.

Conclusion: RG light increased confidence and decreased perceived difficulty when performing SC, though no differences in placement time or success were observed.