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Chaîne médicale en opération: Un siècle d'évolution.


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Retour sur l'EMR SSA Mulhouse


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Hydrazine: Qu'est ce que c'est ?

The Toxicity, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Acute Hydrazine Propellant Exposure: A Systematic Review

Nguyen HN et Al. Mil Med. 2021 Feb 26;186(3-4):e319-e326. 


L'hydrazine est employé comme combustible dans les fusées et dans les F16 américains en tant que combustible alimentant une unité de puissance de secours. Et cela n'est pas sans conséquence lors d'une intervention auprès d'un tel type d'aéronef.



Hydrazines are highly toxic inorganic liquids that are used as propellants in military and aviation industries, such as the U.S. Air Force F-16 Emergency Power Unit and SpaceX SuperDraco Rockets. The most commonly used derivatives include hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine). Industrial workers in close contact with hydrazines during routine maintenance tasks can be exposed to levels well above the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health relative exposure limits.

Materials and methods: A systematic review was performed using PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Technical Server, and Defense Technical Information Center, and data related to hydrazine exposures were searched from inception to April 2020. Publications or reports addressing hydrazine toxicity, pathophysiology, and treatment of hydrazine fuel exposure were selected.

Results: Acute toxic exposures to hydrazine and its derivatives are rare. There are few case reports of acute toxic exposure in humans, and data are largely based on animal studies. The initial search identified 741 articles, manuscripts, and government reports. After screening for eligibility, 51 were included in this review. Eight articles reported acute exposures to hydrazine propellant in humans, and an additional 14 articles reported relevant animal data.

Conclusions: Exposure to small amounts of hydrazine and its derivatives can cause significant soft tissue injury, pulmonary injury, seizures, coma, and death. Neurologic presentations can vary based on exposure compound and dose. Decontamination is critical as treatment is mainly supportive. High-dose intravenous pyridoxine has been suggested as treatment for hydrazine-related neurologic toxicity, but this recommendation is based on limited human data. Despite recent research efforts to generate less toxic alternatives to hydrazine fuel, it will likely continue to have a role in military and aviation industries. Aerospace and military physicians should be aware of the toxicity associated with hydrazine exposure and be prepared to treat hydrazine toxicity in at-risk populations.


Le traumatisé grave en milieu montagneux

Multiple trauma management in mountain environments - a scoping review.

Sumann, G. et al. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 28, 117 (2020).




Multiple trauma in mountain environments may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared to urban environments.


To provide evidence based guidance to assist rescuers in multiple trauma management in mountain environments.

Eligibility criteria

All articles published on or before September 30th 2019, in all languages, were included. Articles were searched with predefined search terms.

Sources of evidence

PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and hand searching of relevant studies from the reference list of included articles.

Charting methods

Evidence was searched according to clinically relevant topics and PICO questions.


Two-hundred forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Recommendations were developed and graded according to the evidence-grading system of the American College of Chest Physicians. The manuscript was initially written and discussed by the coauthors. Then it was presented to ICAR MedCom in draft and again in final form for discussion and internal peer review. Finally, in a face-to-face discussion within ICAR MedCom consensus was reached on October 11th 2019, at the ICAR fall meeting in Zakopane, Poland.


Multiple trauma management in mountain environments can be demanding. Safety of the rescuers and the victim has priority. A crABCDE approach, with haemorrhage control first, is central, followed by basic first aid, splinting, immobilisation, analgesia, and insulation. Time for on-site medical treatment must be balanced against the need for rapid transfer to a trauma centre and should be as short as possible. Reduced on-scene times may be achieved with helicopter rescue. Advanced diagnostics (e.g. ultrasound) may be used and treatment continued during transport.