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27/02/2021

Coniotomie: Apprendre ET s'entretenir

Emergency Cricothyrotomy: A 10-Year Single Institution Experience
Moroco AE et Al. Am Surg. 2021 Feb 10;3134821995075. doi: 10.1177/0003134821995075.

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Même entre des mains chirurgicales ce geste n'est pas si simple que certains le disent. Pourtant il faut le connaître et surtout maintenir la pratique enseignée.

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Background:

With recent technological advances reducing the demand for emergent surgical airway placement, surgeons are less often performing this life-saving procedure. We sought to assess the characteristics and outcomes surrounding patients undergoing modern emergent cricothyrotomy.

Methods:

A retrospective case series was performed between January 2010 and January 2020 at a single tertiary academic level 1 trauma center. Patients who underwent tracheostomy (CPT 31600, 31601) within 48 hours of admission or listed in the trauma registry were queried. Charts were individually reviewed to identify patients with cricothyrotomy. Demographic, operative and relevant hospital course data were collected.

Results:

A total of 1642 patients were identified with 12 of those found to have met inclusion criteria. The population was mostly male (91.7%) with an average age of 43 years and average body mass index of 30. Survival rate of patients was 75%. A total of 7 patients (58%) had appropriate anatomical placement of cricothyrotomy. Of those patients, 75% were performed by Trauma Surgery. Of the 5 patients with misplaced cricothyrotomy, all were male, with an average age and body mass index of 36 years and 25, respectively. Procedures were performed by prehospital personnel (20%), referring hospital (20%), and Trauma Surgery (60%).

Discussion:

Cricothyrotomy remains a vital tool in the successful management of emergent airway access. The most common complication observed was improper anatomical placement, which occurred in nearly half of patients. Trauma surgeons perform 75% of cricothyrotomies, with an anatomical accuracy rate of 66.7%.

 

23/02/2021

Hypocalcémie ? Possible avant toute transfusion

Hypocalcemia in Military Casualties From Point of Injury to Surgical Teams in Afghanistan 

Conner JR et Al. Mil Med . 2021 Jan 25;186(Suppl 1):300-304. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usaa267

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On sait que les dérivés sanguins conservés en solution citratée exposent à une hypocalcémie lors de transfusions importantes, surtout en cas de traumatismes secondaires à des explosions. Apparemment cette dernière peut aussi survenir avant la mise en oeuvre de transfusion. C'est ce que laisse à penser ce document qui interpelle quand au rôle de la survenue d'une hypocalcémie (Ca2+ionisé) en phase préhospitalière. Quid de la validité des travaux ayant porté sur la transfusion hospitalière sans contrôle de ce paramètre Calcium ? Au TXA, faut il ajouter le Ca2+ ?

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Introduction

Hypocalcemia is a known sequela of citrated blood product transfusion. Civilian data suggest hypocalcemia on hospital admission is associated with worse outcomes. Initial calcium levels in military casualties have not previously been analyzed. The objective of this retrospective review aimed to assess the initial calcium levels in military trauma casualties at different Forward Surgical Teams (FST) locations in Afghanistan and describe the effects of prehospital blood product administration on arrival calcium levels.

Materials and Methods

This is a retrospective cohort analysis of military casualties arriving from point of injury to one of two FSTs in Afghanistan from August 2018 to February 2019 split into four locations. The primary outcome was incidence of hypocalcemia (ionized calcium < 1.20 mmol/L).

Results

There were 101 patients included; 55 (54.5%) experienced hypocalcemia on arrival to the FST with a mean calcium of 1.16 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 1.18). The predominant mechanism of injury consisted of blast patterns, 46 (45.5%), which conferred an increased risk of hypocalcemia compared to all other patterns of injury (odds ratio = 2.42, P = .042).

 

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Thirty-eight (37.6%) patients required blood product transfusion. Thirty-three (86.8%) of the patients requiring blood product transfusion were hypocalcemic on arrival. Mean initial calcium of patients receiving blood product was 1.13 mmol/L (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.18), which was significantly lower than those who did not require transfusion (P = .01). Eight (7.9%) of the patients received blood products before arrival, with 6/8 (75%) presenting with hypocalcemia.

Conclusions

Hypocalcemia develops rapidly in military casualties and is prevalent on admission even before transfusion of citrated blood products. Blast injuries may confer an increased risk of developing hypocalcemia. This data support earlier use of calcium supplementation during resuscitation.

12/02/2021

Arrêt cardiaque traumatique: Prise en charge et gestion jusqu'au bloc opératoire

A Case of Prehospital Traumatic Arrest in a US Special Operations Soldier: Care From Point of Injury to Full Recovery

 

During an assault on an extremely remote target, a US Special Operations Soldier sustained multiple gunshot and fragmentation wounds to the thorax, resulting in a traumatic arrest and subsequent survival. His care, including care under fire, tactical field care, tactical evacuation care, and Role III, IV, and V care, is presented. The case is used to illustrate the complex dynamics of Special Operations care on the modern battlefield and the exceptional outcomes possible when evidence-based medicine is taken to the warfighter with effective, farforward, expeditionary medical-force projection.

09/02/2021

Analgésie: Pas si évident

 Comparative Effectiveness of Analgesics to Reduce Acute Pain in the Prehospital Setting

Objectives:

The objectives of this study were to assess comparative effectiveness and harms of opioid and nonopioid analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain in the prehospital setting. 

Methods:

We searched MEDLINE®, Embase®, and Cochrane Central from the earliest date through May 9, 2019. Two investigators screened abstracts, reviewed full-text files, abstracted data, and assessed study level risk of bias. We performed meta-analyses when appropriate. Conclusions were made with consideration of established clinically important differences and we graded each conclusion's strength of evidence (SOE). 

Results:

We included 52 randomized controlled trials and 13 observational studies. Due to the absence or insufficiency of prehospital evidence we based conclusions for initial analgesia on indirect evidence from the emergency department setting. As initial analgesics, there is no evidence of a clinically important difference in the change of pain scores with opioids vs. ketamine administered primarily intravenously (IV) (low SOE), IV acetaminophen (APAP) (low SOE), or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) administered primarily IV (moderate SOE). The combined use of an opioid and ketamine, administered primarily IV, may reduce pain more than an opioid alone at 15 and 30 minutes (low SOE). Opioids may cause fewer adverse events than ketamine (low SOE) when primarily administered intranasally. Opioids cause less dizziness than ketamine (low SOE) but may increase the risk of respiratory depression compared with ketamine (low SOE), primarily administered IV. Opioids cause more dizziness (moderate SOE) and may cause more adverse events than APAP (low SOE), both administered IV, but there is no evidence of a clinically important difference in hypotension (low SOE). Opioids may cause more adverse events and more drowsiness than NSAIDs (low SOE), both administered primarily IV. 

Conclusions:

As initial analgesia, opioids are no different than ketamine, APAP, and NSAIDs in reducing acute pain in the prehospital setting. Opioids may cause fewer total side effects than ketamine, but more than APAP or NSAIDs. Combining an opioid and ketamine may reduce acute pain more than an opioid alone but comparative harms are uncertain. When initial morphine is inadequate, giving ketamine may provide greater and quicker acute pain relief than giving additional morphine, although comparative harms are uncertain. Due to indirectness, strength of evidence is generally low, and future research in the prehospital setting is needed.

06/02/2021

Sonde Foley: CH 14 et 15 ml

Foley catheter action in the nasopharynx: a cadaveric study

 
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La description de cas cliniques   ici   comporte une discussion des aspects techniques de la pose, notamment celui du positionnement du ballonet au bon endroit et pas trop loin pour obstruer le palais mou.
 
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Objectives: 

To determine the action of the Foley catheter in the posterior nasal cavity in relation to balloon volume, and to deduce its implications in the treatment of posterior epistaxis.

Design: 

Human cadaveric study.

Materials: 

Twenty nasal fossae of 10 adult cadavers.

Interventions: 

A Foley catheter (size 14) was inserted into the nasopharynx via each nostril. The catheter balloon was inflated to its recommended maximum volume with 15 mL of water. Firm traction was applied to the catheter. Colored liquid was instilled into the ipsilateral aspect of the nasal cavity, and liquid leakage into the contralateral side was monitored using a nasoendoscope. The balloon was reduced in volume by 1-mL steps, and the same fluid infusion and documentation procedures were performed for each reduced volume until the balloon slipped out of the nose. The procedure was repeated in the opposite nostril.

 

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Main outcome measures: 

Successful choanal sealing and anterior balloon shift into the nasal fossa in relation to the balloon size.

Results:

 The Foley catheter balloon sealed the choana without any leakage of infused liquid into the contralateral side at appropriate inflation volumes in 17 (85%) of 20 nasal fossae. Complete sealing between volumes of 12 and 15 mL was achieved in 13 fossae (65%), between 11 and 15 mL in 10 nasal fossae (50%), and between 5 and 15 mL in 3 nasal fossae (15%). Failure to seal at any volume occurred in 3 nasal fossae (15%). Bimodal seal (ie, complete seal at high [15 mL] and low volumes [4-7 mL], but leakage in intermediate volumes) occurred in 3 nasal fossae (15%). The balloon remained in the nasopharynx under traction and did not slip past the choanal rim to encroach on the middle and inferior turbinates until the balloon volume was reduced to between 4 and 7 mL. The balloon slid out of the nose at a volume of 5 mL or less. The inflation volumes ranging from 8 to 12 mL were statistically more effective in sealing the choana than lower volumes (4-7 mL) (P<.002, chi(2) test).

Conclusions: 

At different inflation volumes, the Foley catheter balloon acts primarily (1) as a platform for an anterior gauze pack (at 4-15 mL); (2) as an effective seal of the choana (at 8-15 mL usually and at 4-7 mL occasionally); and (3) as a compressor of the region behind the middle and inferior turbinates (at 4-7 mL), provided that the balloon under traction does not slip out of the nose.

05/02/2021

Brûlures et afflux massifs

 

Burns Mass casualties.png

Clic sur l'image pour accéder au document

Stage de préparation OPEX ?: Insuffisant !

 
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Ce document doit interpeller sur la pratique de formation des personnels appelés à mettre en oeuvre les gestes du sauvetage au combat. Les différents stages suivis n'assurent à l'évidence pas une pratique gestuelle mais plutôt son observation, ce qui n'est pas du tout la même chose. Par ailleurs ces stages ne permettent pas la confrontation à des traumas ouverts. En outre la nature de l'activité en Service d'Urgence ne correspond pas à une technicité suffisante. L'immersion en bloc opératoire le permet plus même si les opportunités de pratiques gestuelles semblent moindre. Un bon compromis pourrait être l'immersion en salle de surveillance postinterventionnelle.
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Introduction: 

Military-Civilian partnerships (MCPs), such as the Navy Trauma Training Center, are an essential tool for training military trauma care providers. Despite Congressional and military leadership support, sparse data exist to quantify participants' clinical opportunities in MCPs. These preliminary data from an ongoing Navy Trauma Training Center outcomes study quantify clinical experiences and compare skill observation to skill performance.

Materials and methods: 

Participants completed clinical logs after each patient encounter to quantify both patients and procedures they were involved with during clinical rotations; they self-reported demographic data. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and chi-square statistics to compare skills observed to skills performed between the first and second half of the 21-day course.

Results: 

A sample of 47 Navy personnel (30 corpsmen, 10 nurses, 3 physician assistants, 4 physicians) completed 551 clinical logs. Most logs (453/551) reflected experiences in the emergency department, where corpsmen and nurses each spent 102.0 hours, and physician assistants and physicians each spent 105.4 hours. Logs completed per participant ranged from 1 to 31, (mean = 8). No professional group was more likely than others to complete the clinical logs. Completion rates varied by cohort, both overall and by clinical role. Of emergency department logs, 39% reflected highest acuity patients, compared with 21% of intensive care unit logs, and 61% of operating room logs. Penetrating trauma was reported on 16.5% of logs. Primary and secondary trauma assessments were the most commonly reported clinical opportunities, followed by obtaining intravenous access and administration of analgesic medications. With few exceptions, logs reflected skill observation versus skill performance, a ratio that did not change over time.

Conclusion: 

Prospective real-time data of actual clinical activity is a crucial measure of the success of MCPs. These preliminary data provide a beginning perspective on how these experiences contribute to maintaining a skilled military medical force.

04/02/2021

Inexpérimenté mais sûr de soi ! Constat alarmant

Inexperienced but Confident: A Survey of Advanced Life Support Providers and Life-saving Interventions in the Israel Defense Forces

Nadav Haddad N et Al. , military medicine, 186, S1:261, 2021

Objective:

The objective of this study was to assess the current experience of Israel Defense Forces’ (IDF) advanced life support (ALS) providers in performing life-saving interventions (LSIs), the rate of doctors and paramedics achieving the Trauma and Combat Medicine Branch benchmarks, and the rate of providers feeling confident in performing the interventions although not achieving the benchmarks.

Methods:

This study was based on an online survey delivered to IDF ALS providers. The survey investigated demographics; experience in performing endotracheal intubation, cricothyroidotomy, tube thoracostomy, and intraosseous access on human patients; and confidence in performing these LSIs. All benchmarks chosen referred to the number of times performed in the previous year. The benchmarks were 20 for intubation, 3 for cricothyroidotomy, 4 for tube thoracostomy, and 3 for intraosseous access.

Results:

During the survey period, 175 IDF ALS providers started the survey, but only 138 (79%) completed it, 93 (67%) of them were paramedics. Doctors had higher rates than paramedics of failing to achieve the benchmarks for intubation (96 vs. 57%, P < .001) and intraosseous access (100 vs. 66%, P < .001). All respondents failed to achieve the benchmark for cricothyroidotomy, and all but one paramedic failed to achieve the tube thoracostomy benchmark. Doctors had lower rates of high confidence when failing to achieve the benchmark for intubation (35 vs. 64%, P = .008) and intraosseous access (7 vs. 31%, P = .005) compared to paramedics.

Conclusion:

IDF ALS providers have alarmingly limited experience in performing LSIs. Many of them are confident in their ability despite not achieving evidence-based benchmarks. Additional training is required, maybe as a part of an annual medical fitness test.

02/02/2021

TXA: Oui, mais parfois pas nécessaire

Unjustified Administration in Liberal Use of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Resuscitation

Tareq Kheirbek T et Al. J Surg Res . 2021 Feb;258:125-131. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.08.045.

Background:

Early administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been widely implemented for the treatment of presumed hyperfibrinolysis in hemorrhagic shock. We aimed to characterize the liberal use of TXA and whether unjustified administration was associated with increased venous thrombotic events (VTEs).

Methods:

We identified injured patients who received TXA between January 2016 and January 2018 by querying our Level 1 trauma center's registry. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and radiologic images to classify whether patients had a hemorrhagic injury that would have benefited from TXA (justified) or not (unjustified).

Results:

Ninety-five patients received TXA for traumatic injuries, 42.1% were given by emergency medical services. TXA was considered unjustified in 35.8% of the patients retrospectively and in 52% of the patients when given by emergency medical services. Compared with unjustified administration, patients in the justified group were younger (47.6 versus 58.4; P = 0.02), more hypotensive in the field (systolic blood pressure: 107 ± 31 versus 137 ± 32 mm Hg; P < 0.001) and in the emergency department (systolic blood pressure: 97 ± 27 versus 128 ± 27; P < 0.001), and more tachycardic in emergency department (heart rate: 99 ± 29 versus 88 ± 19; P = 0.04). The justified group also had higher injury severity score (median 24 versus 11; P < 0.001), was transfused more often (81.7% versus 20.6%; P < 0.001), and had higher in-hospital mortality (39.3% versus 2.9%; P < 0.001), but there was no difference in the rate of VTE (8.2% versus 5.9%).

Conclusions:

Our results highlight a high rate of unjustified administration, especially in the prehospital setting. Hypotension and tachycardia were indications of correct use. Although we did not observe a difference in VTE rates between the groups, though, our study was underpowered to detect a difference. Cautious implementation of TXA in resuscitation protocols is encouraged in the meantime. Nonetheless, adverse events associated with unjustified TXA administration should be further evaluated