Coniotomie: Chirurgie vs percutané ?
To compare the speeds and success rates of placement for percutaneous cricothyrotomy versus surgical or open cricothyrotomy.
Twenty-two paramedics (mean 9.7 years of experience), with training in both methods, were timed using a pig trachea in a crossover model. An emergency physician performed timing and documentation of success; timing commenced after the equipment was ready and the membrane was identified. Paramedics were randomly assigned by a coin toss to start in either group. All were actively employed by a municipal third-service emergency medical services (EMS) agency. Paramedics who did not complete one of the methods correctly were excluded from speed analysis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a t-test of paired samples, and confidence intervals for matched samples.
Placement of a surgical cricothyrotomy was significantly faster (mean 28 seconds, range 10–78 seconds) than the percutaneous method (mean 123 seconds, range 58–257 seconds) (p < 0.001). Mean difference between the 20 matched percutaneous versus surgical pairs was 93.75 seconds (95% CI 72.3, 115.2). The surgical route had a 100% success rate at obtaining airway control, whereas the percutaneous method had a 90.9% success rate (p = 0.1).
In an animal model, surgical cricothyrotomy appeared to be a preferable method for establishing a definitive airway over the percutaneous method. Further research is required to define the optimal approach in the prehospital setting for the invasive airway.