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Brûlures au phosphore: Pansement humide simplement

Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model.


The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces.


Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors.


All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around.


Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used.

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Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons


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Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare

  1. History of Biological Weapons: From Poisoned Darts to Intentional Epidemics 
    James W. Martin, George W. Christopher, and Edward M. Eitzen, Jr.
  2. Food, Waterborne, and Agricultural Diseases 
    Zygmunt F. Dembek and Edwin L. Anderson
  3. Epidemiology of Biowarfare and Bioterrorism 
    Zygmunt F. Dembek, Julie A. Pavlin, and Mark G. Kortepeter
  4. Anthrax
    Bret K. Purcell, Patricia L. Worsham, and Arthur M. Friedlander
  5. Plague
    Patricia L. Worsham, Thomas W. McGovern, Nicholas J. Vietri, and Arthur M. Friedlander
  6. Glanders
    Bridget Carr Gregory and David M. Waag
  7. Melioidosis
    Nicholas J. Vietri and David Deshazer
  8. Tularemia
    Matthew J. Hepburn, Arthur M. Friedlander, and Zygmunt F. Dembek
  9. Brucellosis
    Bret K. Purcell, David L. Hoover, and Arthur M. Friedlander
  10. Q Fever
    David M. Waag
  11. Smallpox and Related Orthopoxviruses
    Peter B. Jahrling, John W. Huggins, M. Sofi Ibrahim, James V. Lawler, and James W. Martin
  12. Alphavirus Encephalitides
    Keith E. Steele, Douglas S. Reed, Pamela J. Glass, Mary Kate Hart, George V. Ludwig, William D. Pratt, Michael D. Parker, and Jonathan F. Smith
  13. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
    Peter B. Jahrling, Aileen M. Marty, and Thomas W. Geisbert
  14. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B and Related Toxins
    Robert G. Ulrich, Catherine L. Wilhelmsen, and Teresa Krakauer
  15. Ricin
    Mark A. Poli, Chad Roy, Kermit D. Huebner, David R. Franz, and Nancy K. Jaax
  16. Botulinum Toxin
    Zygmunt F. Dembek, Leonard A. Smith, and Janice M. Rusnak
  17. Additional Toxins of Clinical Concern
    Kermit D. Huebner, Robert W. Wannemacher, Jr., Bradley G. Stiles, Michel R. Popoff, and Mark A. Poli
  18. Laboratory Identification of Biological Threats
    Erik A. Henchal, George V. Ludwig, Chris A. Whitehouse, and John M. Scherer
  19. Consequence Management: The National and Local Response
    Kermit D. Huebner and James W. Martin
  20. Medical Management of Potential Biological Casualties: A Stepwise Approach
    Theodore J. Cieslak and George W. Christopher
  21. Medical Countermeasures
    Janice M. Rusnak, Ellen F. Boudreau, Matthew J. Hepburn, James W. Martin, and Sina Bavari
  22. Biosafety
    Catherine L. Wilhelmsen and Robert J. Hawley
  23. Biosurety
    Gretchen L. Demmin
  24. Ethical and Legal Dilemmas in Biodefense Research
    Jeffrey E. Stephenson and Arthur O. Anderson
  25. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Future Threats
    Chris A. Whitehouse, Alan L. Schmaljohn, and Zygmunt F. Dembek

Medical Management of Chemical Casualties

Chapter 1. Lung-Damaging Agents
Chapter 2. Cyanide
Chapter 3. Vesicants
Chapter 4. Nerve Agents
Chapter 5. Incapacitating Agents
Chapter 6. Riot-Control Agents
Chapter 7. Decontamination
Chapter 8. Casualty Management in a Contaminated Area
Chapter 9. Individual Protective Equipment 


Chemical and biological weapons

1. Overview: Defense Against the Effects of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents 1
2. History of Chemical and Biological Warfare: An American Perspective 9
3. Historical Aspects of Medical Defense Against Chemical Warfare 87
4. The Chemical Warfare Threat and the Military Healthcare Provider 111
5. Nerve Agents 129
6. Pretreatment for Nerve Agent Exposure 181
7. Vesicants 197
8. Long-Term Health Effects of Nerve Agents and Mustard 229
9. Toxic Inhalational Injury 247
10. Cyanide Poisoning 271
11. Incapacitating Agents 287
12. Riot Control Agents 307
13. Field Management of Chemical Casualties 325
14. Triage of Chemical Casualties 337
15. Decontamination 351
16. Chemical Defense Equipment 361
17. Healthcare and the Chemical Surety Mission 397
18. Historical Overview of Biological Warfare 415
19. The U.S. Biological Warfare and Biological Defense Programs 425
20. Use of Biological Weapons 437
21. The Biological Warfare Threat 451
22. Anthrax 467
23. Plague 479
24. Tularemia 503
25. Brucellosis 513
26. Q Fever 523
27. Smallpox 539
28. Viral Encephalitides 561
29. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers 591
30. Defense Against Toxin Weapons 603
31. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B and Related Pyrogenic Toxins 621
32. Ricin Toxin 631
33. Botulinum Toxins 643
34. Trichothecene Mycotoxins 655
35. Medical Challenges in Chemical and Biological Defense for the 21st Century 677
  Acronyms and Abbreviations 687

Fiches Biotox

Fiches biotox de prise en charge thérapeutique



Prise en charge des contaminations internes à divers radionucléides (entrée par antidote, la fiche n°1 oriente le choix de l'antidote)

Fiches Piratox


Prise en charge des intoxications aux agents chimiques (entrée par catégorie d'agent chimique)

Oximes: Pas toutes équivalentes


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Toxiques de guerre: Les fondamentaux


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Intoxication Organophosphorés: Mise au point


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